Fidel Castro has been Prime Minister/President of Cuba since 1959. Born in about 1926, he grew up in the remote northeastern Cuban province of Oriente where his family owned one of the area’s largest sugar plantations. He attended a number of elite secondary schools in Cuba before studying law at the University of Havana, which had been a center of political activity since the 1930s. There Castro became acquainted with nationalist supporters and participated in political strikes and demonstrations.
After graduation, Castro set up his own law practice in Havana, but continued to be politically active. He ran as a congressional candidate in 1952, but elections were canceled after the March 10th military coup d'etat by General Fulgencio Batista. The next year, Castro led a revolt against the authoritarian and corrupt government of General Batista. Most of the leaders of this revolt, later known as the "26th of July" movement, were killed or imprisoned. After serving 22 months in prison, Castro reorganized the movement and recruited new followers. The movement eventually forced Batista to flee the country shortly before dawn on New Year's Day, 1959.
Since assuming his position as Prime Minister of Cuba on February 16, 1959, Castro has been in control of Cuba’s government, military, and economy. He has transformed the country into a socialist nation with a state-run economy and social programs.
Strained relations with the United States following Batista’s overthrow marked Castro’s time in power, due to his nationalization of U.S. property in Cuba and alliances with the U.S.S.R. The United States formally ended diplomatic relations with Cuba on January 3, 1961. Shortly thereafter, two of the most well-known clashes between the Cuban and American governments occurred during the administration of President Kennedy. In 1961, the United States backed anti-Castro Cuban exiles in the Bay of Pigs invasion, which resulted in the defeat of the exiles by the Cuban army. In October of 1962, the Cuban Missile Crisis erupted when it was discovered that the U.S.S.R. was building nuclear missile sites on the island. After thirteen days of tense negotiation, the Soviet Union ultimately removed its missiles from the island. To this day, the United States continues its trade embargo against Cuba, first implemented in 1960.
1926 Born, Oriente, Cuba
1941 Student, El Colegio de Belen, Havana
1945 Student, University of Havana Law School
1947 Member, Ortodoxo Party
1949 Practicing lawyer, Havana
1952 Congressional candidate, Ortodoxo Party
1953 July 26, Leader of movement against Cuban army’s Moncada Barracks; Fidel and brother Raul sentenced to 15 years in prison
1953 - 1955 Author (from prison), “History Will Absolve Me”
1955 April 1, Released after 22 months in prison; travels to Mexico
1956 November 25, Returns to Cuba and begins uprising against Batista
1959 January 1, Castro’s forces enter Havana as Batista flees the country
February 16, Prime Minister of Cuba
April 15-26, Trip to U.S., dubbed “Operation Truth”
May 17, Signing of Agrarian Reform Act, expropriating farm lands, including his family’s land
1960 May 8, Establishment of formal diplomatic relations with U.S.S.R.
July 5, Nationalization of U.S. companies and properties in Cuba
September 17, Nationalization of all U.S. banks in Cuba
1964 Trip to Soviet Union; signing of a new trade agreement
1965 First Secretary, Communist Party of Cuba
1976 Implementation of new Cuban constitution; Castro given title President of the Council of State and Council of Ministers
1979 September 3-9, Elected Chair of the Non-Aligned Movement
2006 July 31, Temporarily transfers responsibilities to Vice President Raul Castro due to ill health
“American Experience: Fidel Castro.” WGBH Educational Foundation, 2004.
Frankel, Max. High Noon in the Cold War: Kennedy, Khrushchev, and the Cuban Missile Crisis. New York: Ballantine books, 2004.
Fursenko, Aleksandr and Timothy Naftali. “One Hell of a Gamble”: Khrushchev, Castro and Kennedy, 1958-1964. New York: W.W. North & Company, 1997
President Kennedy’s radio and television report to the American people on the Soviet arms buildup in Cuba, October 22, 1962
The World on the Brink: John F. Kennedy and the Cuban Missile Crisis
JFK in History
The Bay of Pigs
The Cold War
Cuban Missile Crisis
Kennedy Library Forum transcripts
On the Brink: The Cuban Missile Crisis, 10/20/02 (pdf)
Cuban Missile Crisis: An Historical Perspective, 10/6/02 (pdf)
Thirteen Days: An Insider's Perspective, 10/1/02 (pdf)