Cooperation Agreement with France
House Joint Resolution 569— Public Law 87-363, approved October 4, 1961
Ratification of this agreement permits the United States and France to exchange classified information to permit French military forces to be trained in the employment of and defense against atomic weapons.
In addition the agreement provides for the transfer of non-nuclear parts of atomic weapons systems (but not parts of atomic weapons) to improve the state of training and operational readiness of French military forces assigned to NATO.
Educational and Cultural Exchange
H.R. 8666— Public Law 87-256, approved September 21, 1961
This measure is designed to improve the quality and effectiveness of the international educational and cultural exchange programs administered and sponsored by the U.S. Government by consolidating into one act the following programs: The Fulbright Act of the 79th Congress, Public Law 584; the Smith-Mundt Act of the 80th Congress, Public Law 402; the Finnish Debt Payments Act of the 81st Congress, Public Law 265; the Mutual Security Act of 1954 as amended; the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 of the 83d Congress, Public Law 480; and the International Cultural Exchange and Trade Fair Participation Act of 1956 of the 84th Congress, Public Law 860.
The overall aim in effecting the consolidation is to promote the educational and cultural affairs to a more important position in the foreign relations of the United States.
Principal provisions of the consolidation:
Continues the President's authority to appoint a Board of Foreign Scholarships to select students and educational institutions for the program, and increases the membership from 10 to 12.
Permits U.S. participation in exchange programs sponsored through the U.N. or other international organizations.
Authorized use of exchange program funds for living expenses as well as transportation expenses of foreign students coming to the United States.
Authorized use of U.S.owned foreign currencies for the exchange of United States and foreign students and teachers under a program administered by State Department.
Authorized use of funds to assist U.S. educational institutions in foreign countries.
Authorized the educational and cultural exchange programs for leaders and specialists as well as teachers.
Authorized the State Department to administer the programs involving exchange of persons and cultural presentations. Authorized USIA to administer exchange of books and educational materials, and Commerce Department to administer the trade fair provisions.
Authorized U.S. representation at cultural events in the United States as well as abroad.
Broadened the definition of cultural events to include meetings and assemblies as well as artistic, dramatic, musical, and sports.
Revised the Immigration and Nationality Act and established a new nonimmigrant alien class for which visas as exchange visitors would be issued to teachers, trainees, leaders, and specialists.
Authorized program participants and dependents to accept employed.
Permitted one security investigation to be sufficient to cover any Government personnel who might change their functions within a department.
Permitted fellowships from foreign governments and international organizations to be taxed at the same rate as U.S. grants.
Applied the same tax rules and rates to income of exchange visitors as are applied to U.S. citizens.
Directed the President to submit annual reports to the Congress, derailing activities and expenditures made under this act.
Emergency Repatriation Assistance Act of 1961
H.R. 6027— Public Law 87-64, approved June 30, 1961
The Emergency Repatriation Assistance Act of 1961 authorizes the Secretary of HEW, after consulting with the Secretaries of State and Defense, to develop plans and make arrangements for providing temporary assistance to U.S. citizens and dependents of U.S. citizens, identified by the Department of State as having returned or brought here because of destitution or illness, or because of war, threat of war, invasion, or similar crisis.
This 1-year assistance, however, will be provided only if the citizen or dependent involved was without available resources. The aid can consist of money payments, medical care, temporary billeting, transportation, or other goods or services needed for the health or welfare of the individual. It can also include guidance, counseling, and other welfare services.
Foreign Aid Authorization Act of 1961
S. 1983— Public Law 87-195, approved September 4, 1961
This measure authorizes $4,253,500,000 for foreign economic and military assistance in 1962 and $1.5 billion in each of the following years, 1963-66 for the Development Loan Fund. The major provisions are:
Statement of policy.—- Stated its purpose is to strengthen friendly foreign countries by encouraging the development of their free economic institutions, productive capabilities, and by eliminating barriers to the flow of private investment capital. In addition, declared that it is the policy of the United States to support the principles of increased economic cooperation and trade among countries, freedom of the press, information, religion, freedom of navigation in international waterways, and recognition of the right of all private persons to travel and pursue their lawful activities without discrimination as to race or religion.
Development Loan Fund.— Authorized a 5 year program of long-term loans to friendly countries and areas with emphasis upon assisting long-range plans and programs designed to develop economic resources and increase productive capabilities.
The loans are to be repayable in U.S. dollars and made only upon a finding of reasonable prospects for repayment.
Provided that loans may not be re-loaned within the recipient country at rates of interest excessive or unreasonable for the borrower and in no event higher than the applicable legal rate of interest of the country in which the loan is made.
Authorized $1.2 billion for fiscal year 1962 and $1.5 billion for each of the following years, 1963-66, but required annual appropriations.
Authorized the President, when he determines it is important to the advancement of our interest and the development program, to enter into agreements committing loan funds in advance of but subject to the appropriation of such funds. Requires the President to notify the Foreign Relations and Appropriations Committees of the Senate and the House of the provisions of such agreements, including the amounts of funds involved.
Authorized the President to establish an Interagency Development Loan Committee, consisting of officers from Government agencies and confirmed by the Senate, to establish standards and criteria for lending.
Authorized the President to lend up to 10 percent of the Development Loan Funds to the International Development Association.
Development grants.— Authorized $380 million in development grants plus unobligated balances (estimated at $15 million). Development grants will be used to raise educational, technical, managerial, and professional levels of certain societies. Authorized assistance to schools, libraries, and hospitals outside the United States that have been founded or sponsored by American citizens. Authorized up to $2 million to promote the peaceful uses of atomic energy outside the United States.
Development grant activities will be financed jointly by the United States and the host government with the latter paying a fair share of the cost of the programs.
Authorized assistance through loans of foreign currencies to small farmers, up to an aggregate of $10 million at any one time.
Prohibits grants which would have a substantially adverse effect upon the U.S. economy or a segment thereof.
Investment guarantees.— Continues and broadens the President's authority to make guarantees of certain investments up to a face amount of $1 billion, and expands the role of private enterprise in furthering the economic growth of less developed countries and areas. Authorized the President to guarantee up to 75 percent of an investment up to $10 million, against risks as determined by him; however, these investments must be for projects emphasizing economic development, social progress, and promote small independent business enterprises. Authorized guarantees up to 75 percent of an investment in pilot housing projects in Latin America up to a total of $10 million. These guarantees would cover investments made by U.S. citizens or business entities which are both U.S.-chartered and substantially U.S.-owned in pilot or demonstration private housing projects in Latin America. Requires a fee for each guarantee in an amount to be determined by the President.
Surveys of investment opportunities.—
Authorized $5 million to finance up to 50 percent of the cost of investment surveys and studies in less developed areas approved by the President. Excludes surveys regarding sources of oil, gas, and ores, along with studies aimed at determining the feasibility of mining and other extraction operations. To be eligible to receive such funds, the term "person" as applied to this section means a citizen of the United States or any corporation, partnership, or other association substantially beneficially owned by U.S. citizens.
Development research.— Establishes a new program designed to contribute the results of systematic investigation to the improvement and the direction of economic aid programs.
International organizations and programs.— Authorizes $153.5 million for the support of international organizations and programs; funds to remain available until expended. Limited contributions to the U.S. expanded program of technical assistance and the U.S. Special Fund (after calendar year 1961) to 40 percent of the total amount contributed, including assessed and audited local costs, for each year. Directed the President, in his determination as to whether aid should be continued to the Palestine refugees in the Near East, to consider whether Israel and the Arab host governments are taking steps toward the resettlement and repatriation of these refugees and the extent and success of efforts by the U.N. Relief and Works Agency and the Arab host governments to rectify the Palestine refugee relief rolls. Reaffirmed U.S. policy to participate in the Indus Basin development.
Supporting assistance.— Authorizes $465 million for supporting assistance to be used beginning in fiscal year 1962, plus unobligated balances currently estimated at $50 million, and to remain available until expended. Supporting assistance joins together in a single category those programs which have been labeled "defense support" and "special assistance" programs.
— Authorized up to $300 million for a contingency fund to be used by the President for economic purposes that he determines to be important to the national interest.
Directed the President to place emphasis upon programs reaching the people who are engaged in agriculture.
Military assistance.— Authorized a 2-year program at the level of $1.7 billion for each of the fiscal years. Military assistance may be furnished on such terms and conditions as the President may determine, and to any country, subject to conditions of eligibility, or international organizations, the support of which the President finds to be in the national interest. Limited defense articles for any one country in any one year to $3 million unless the President determines, among other requirements, that the increased ability of such country to defend itself is important to the security of the United States. Authorizes the President to use up to $300 million in Defense Department supplies for military aid if he determines it to be vital to the security of the United States. Limited to $57.5 million the amount of military equipment aid for Latin American nations.
Aid barred.— Bars aid under this act to the present Government of Cuba; to the government of any country unless the President determines that the country is not dominated or controlled by the international Communist movement; to any country indebted to a U.S. citizen who has exhausted available legal remedies.
Small business.— Established an Office of Small Business to assist America small business in foreign aid program. Established a $5 million revolving fund to acquire usable U.S. machinery to sell to small foreign businesses and set a ceiling of $45 million on the original sale value of surplus property transferred to the Agency for International Development.
Recipient countries.— Encouraged development and use in recipient countries of cooperatives, credit unions, and savings and loan associations.
President Kennedy's Statement of August 29, 1961:
The compromise which the Senate-House conferees have worked out is wholly satisfactory. It gives the U.S. government authority to make commitments for long-term development programs with reasonable assurance that these commitments will be met. In providing 5 years of substantial authorization, the conferees have recognized the magnitude of the need in the developing countries. In insuring specific authority to enter into commitments with these countries, the conferees have recognized the necessity for this Government to give assurance that assistance will be forthcoming over a period of years. The agreement reached by the conferees today is an important decision both for the United States and the free world.
Latin American Aid
H.R. 6518— Public Law 87-41, approved May 27, 1961
This measure appropriates $500 million for the inter-American social and economic cooperation program and $100 million for Chilean reconstruction.
The authorizing legislation was passed in 1960 to enable the U.S. representatives in Bogota, Columbia, to give substance to a new program of development for Latin America. The objective of this development program is to implement the Act of Bogota, signed by 19 American nations in September 1960.
In helping to carry out the Act of Bogota, the funds involved in this appropriation will be aimed directly at the Latin American people through advances in fields which directly affect their lives.
President Kennedy, in requesting this appropriation, stated—
...it will be devoted to social progress. Social progress is not a substitute for economic development. It is an effort to create a social framework within which all the people of a nation can share in the benefits of prosperity and participate in the process of growth. Economic growth without social progress lets the great majority of the people remain in poverty while a privileged few reap the benefits of rising abundance... Thus, the purpose of our special effort for social progress is to overcome the barriers of geographical and social isolation, illiteracy and lack of educational opportunities, archaic tax and land tenure structures and other institutional obstacles to broad participation in economic growth.
The fields included in this social progress are—
(a) Land settlement and improved land use;
(b) Housing for low-income groups through assistance to self-help housing and to institutions providing long-term housing finance;
(c) Community water supply and sanitation facilities;
(d) Supplementary financing of facilities for advanced education and training related to economic and social development as may be agreed upon from time to time between the United States and the Inter-American Development Bank. The IDB will also provide technical assistance related to the above fields. Technical assistance may be on a grant, loan, or reimbursable basis.
The International Cooperation Administration will also participate in the program and its primary responsibility will be for education and training programs, public health, projects for social improvement for the federation of the West Indies and other territories within the Western Hemisphere, and applied research and surveys in fields related to social progress. Most ICA assistance will be on a grant basis.
Six million dollars is to be used to help the Organization of American States in connection with the social development program.
The $100 million will be loaned to the Government of Chile to assist in financing specific reconstruction projects and activities made necessary by the series of severe earthquakes in southern Chile. Total damage as a result of the quakes was $372 million.
As finally enacted, the measure prohibits loans or reloans at interest rates considered to be excessive by the Inter-American Development Bank or higher than the legal rate of interest of the country in which the loan is made.
H.R. 7500— Public Law 87-293, approved September 2, 1961
This measure carries out President Kennedy's recommendation to establish a Peace Corps of American volunteers to carry America's skills and talents and idealism abroad to help other peoples help themselves. The Peace Corps is designed to provide the framework through which America's idealism, her humanitarianism, and her generosity can find a personal expression in the task of helping to build with our own hands a better world for all mankind. The major provisions are:
Purpose.— To promote world peace and friendship through a Peace Corps, and to promote a better understanding of other peoples on the part of the American people and a better understanding of the American people on the part of the peoples served.
Staff and agency.— Established as a semiautonomous agency within the Department of State, headed by a Director appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate, at $20,000 a year, and a Deputy Director at $19,500 a year. The Director of the agency will report directly to the Secretary of State, and the integration of the Peace Corps programs with the foreign policy of the United States will be the responsibility of the Secretary of State.
Volunteers.— Provides that the President may enroll in the Peace Corps for service abroad qualified citizens and nationals of the United States who will be called volunteers. A volunteer, to enroll in the Peace Corps, must pass a general entrance as well as other examinations, successfully complete a training program including instruction in philosophy, strategy, tactics, and the menace of communism, be selected for oversea duty, and have a language proficiency. To qualify as a volunteer, one must be at least 18, single or if married both must volunteer, in excellent physical and mental health, emotionally mature, and exemplary in personal conduct. In addition he must have a good educational background and/or experience required for success both in the training program and in performance on the job.
Allowances.— Volunteers will be given living, travel, and leave allowances, and such housing, transportation, supplies, equipment, subsistence, and clothing as the President may determine necessary (estimated to cost $9,000 per person). The volunteer is to live at a level generally similar to that of his host country counterpart. He will be credited with 2 1/2 days of annual leave for each month of satisfactory service, which will permit him to travel some in the area in which he is stationed. While actually on leave, the volunteer will be given an additional allowance of $5 a day to cover expenses.
Termination payments.— Volunteers will receive termination payments at a rate not to exceed $75 for each month of satisfactory service, to be paid at the conclusion of his service; unless his financial situation is such that he needs payments deducted to support a family.
National Advisory Council.— Provides for Presidential appointment of 25 members to the Council from educational institutions, voluntary agencies, farm organizations, labor unions, and other public and private organizations and groups interested in the objectives of the Peace Corps. The Council is to advise and consult with the President concerning policy matters. The service is without pay; however, if they are not employed by the Government they may receive $50 per diem not to exceed 20 days in any fiscal year, actual travel expenses, and per diem in lieu of subsistence and other expenses.
Peace Corps projects.— For a project to be eligible: (1) It must make a contribution to the economic, social, or cultural development of the host country, and the government of that country must have requested the project and given evidence of its willingness to cooperate; (2) it must require primarily workers or doers with skills not sufficiently available in the host country; (3) maintenance and remuneration of volunteers must meet Peace Corps standards; (4) it must use volunteers who will be serving in this or other projects for a minimum of 2 or 3 years including training time; and (5) any sectarian religious propagandizing or proselytizing must not be permitted.
Authorization.— Authorizes an appropriation of $40 million for fiscal 1962.
Senate Concurrent Resolution 34— Passed Senate July 28, 1961, passed House August 31, 1961
Resolves to continue existing relations with and commitments to the Nationalist Chinese Government (Republic of China); resolves also to continue to oppose the Chinese Communists in their bid for recognition in the United Nations; and continues to oppose diplomatic recognition of the Chinese Communists by the President of the United States.
U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Act
H.R. 9118 — Public Law 87-297, approved September 16, 1961
This measure establishes a U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency to deal with the problem of reduction and control of armaments looking toward ultimate world disarmament.
The major provisions are:
Purpose. —The purpose of the act is to establish an agency to give impetus to the U.S. goals of a world which is free from the scourge of war and the dangers and burdens of armaments, in which the use of force has been subordinated to the rule of law and in which international adjustments to a changing world are achieved peacefully.
—Provided that the independent agency be headed by a Director, appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate ($22,500 a year). Provided for a Deputy Director, also appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate ($21,500 a year); four Assistant Directors appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate ($20,000 a year). Authorizes the Director, under the supervision of the Secretary of State, to establish the necessary bureaus, offices, and divisions, including an Office of the General Counsel. Authorizes the President to appoint a 15 member General Advisory Committee, to be confirmed by the Senate, to advise the Director on arms control and disarmament policy and activities.
—Authorizes the Agency to (1) conduct research, development, and studies in this field; (2) make arrangements, through contracts, agreements, and grants, among other methods, for the conduct of such research, development, and other studies by private or public institutions or persons; and (3) coordinate research, development, and other studies conducted by or for other Government agencies, under the provisions of section 35 which provides the mechanism for coordinating these activities among the affected Government agencies and for resolving differences among them.
—Provides that appropriated funds may not be expended for any technological research or development activity unless the expenditure is conditioned upon provisions effective to insure that all information, uses, products, processes, patents, and other developments resulting from that activity will be made freely and fully available to the general public (unless limited by the Director for national defense purposes).
—Authorizes the Director to prepare for the President, the Secretary of State, and the heads of such other Government agencies as the President determines necessary, recommendations concerning disarmament policy, consultation, and communication with representatives of other nations, international organizations, and diplomatic representatives of the United States at home and abroad to conduct negotiations concerning disarmament or to exercise any other authority in the act; to provide the USIA with official U.S. positions and policy on disarmament matters for dissemination abroad; and to formulate plans to establish and operate inspection and control systems which may become part of U.S. disarmament activities and the direction or assumption of U.S. responsibility for these systems.
Coordination. —Authorizes the President to establish procedures to assure cooperation, consultation, and a continuing exchange of information between the new Agency, the Department of Defense, AEC, NASA, and other affected Government agencies in all significant aspects of U.S. disarmament policy, and to resolve differences of opinion between the Department of State and such agencies which cannot be resolved through consultation. This provision provides the mechanism for coordinating these activities among the affected Government agencies and for resolving differences among them.
—Requires full fields by the Civil Service Commission on all employees including consultants and, in the event the investigation discloses information which indicates the person may be a security risk, the report is to be turned over to the FBI for further investigation.
—Authorizes an appropriation of $10 million to get the Agency started and to remain available until expended. This will permit Congress to review the Agency's growth and direction when these funds have been exhausted.
—The Director must make a report to the President for transmittal to Congress by January 31, of each year on the activities of the Agency.
U.S. Travel Service
S. 610 — Public Law 87-63, approved June 29, 1961
To strengthen the domestic and foreign commerce of the United States, this measure authorizes an appropriation of $3 million (for the first year) to establish and maintain a U.S. Travel Service within the Department of Commerce. Thereafter the annual appropriation is not to exceed $4,700,000.
To carry out the idea of encouraging expanded foreign travel to the United States and facilitating international travel generally, this program initiates a broad national campaign to attract foreign visitors through advertising, promotional materials, and by establishing Government travel offices in selected oversea locations. The program also provides for cooperation with private industry in developing domestic facilities designed to meet the special requirements of foreign visitors. In addition, provision is made for coordinating all Government efforts to ease barriers to international travel.
The U.S. Travel Service will be headed by a Director appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate, at $19,000 a year.
Assistance to Refugees, Migrants, and Escapees
H.R. 8291 — Public Law 87-510, approved June 28, 1962
This bill assists in the resettlement of refugees and escapees by—
Authorizing the President to participate in three programs:
Contributions to the Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration (ICEM), contributions to the United Nations High Commissioner for refugees (UNHCR), and the U.S. escapee program (USEP).
Establishing specific authority to assist Cuban refugees who have come to the United States.
Providing the President with authority to meet unexpected refugee, escapee, and migration problems by using up to $10 million in any fiscal year out of his foreign aid contingency fund.
Authorizing the President to delegate his responsibilities under this act to appropriate officers of the U.S. Government, to allocate funds to these officers to operate the programs, and to expend funds for necessary operating and administrative purposes.
ICEM, established on the initiative of the United States in 1951, now has 30 governments as members. Its purpose is to move surplus population and refugees from Europe to Latin America, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and other countries. The organization assists these migrants in relocating and establishing themselves in their new surroundings.
USEP, operated by the United States since 1952, provides reception, supplemental material aid, and resettlement and local integration assistance to recent escapees from the Sino-Soviet bloc.
UNHCR, established in 1951, to promote the principle of asylum refugees fleeing from persecution and to reduce political tensions resulting when large numbers of people seek asylum in a neighboring country.
Aid to Cuban refugees heretofore has been made the responsibility of the Department of HEW. The program has been operated under the Mutual Security Act of 1954 and financed out of the President's contingency fund under that act.
Export Control Act Extension
S. 3161 — Public Law 87-515, approved July 1, 1962
Extended the Export Control Act of 1949 to June 30, 1965. The Export Control Act of 1949 authorized the President to prohibit or curtail exporting from the United States certain articles because of security reasons or because they are in short supply. Congress keeps informed of these acts through quarterly reports from the Secretary of Commerce. Control by the President is not limited to strategic items. He can invoke a total embargo or the mildest restrictions.
The 1949 act is amended by—
1. Adding new language declaring that the potential economic as well as military significance of exports should be taken into account in determining whether they may adversely affect the national security of the United States.
2. Calling for formation of a united trade policy for the free world to apply to its dealings with the Communist countries.
3. Declaring it is the policy of the United States to use its economic resources and advantages in trade with Communist-dominated nations to further the national security and foreign policy objectives of the United States.
4. Denying a license or authority to export any articles or materials if the President determines that such exports make a significant contribution to the military or economic potential of any such nation in a way which would prove detrimental to the national security and welfare of the United States.
5. Increasing the maximum penalty for violations to (a) three times the value of the exports involved or $20,000, or 5 years' imprisonment, or both, for second and subsequent offenses, and (b) to five times the value of the exports or $20,000, or 5 years' imprisonment, or both, for exports made in willful violation of the act or regulation with knowledge of intended use for the benefit of a Communist-dominated nation.
Foreign Aid Authorization for 1963
S. 2996 — Public Law 87-565, approved August 1, 1962
Authorized a total of $3.6 billion in foreign aid which includes $2.4 billion through fiscal year 1966 for Alliance for Progress at the rate of $600 million each year. Total authorization for 1963 is $1.8 billion, as follows: Development grants, $300 million; investment surveys, $2 million; Alliance for Progress, $600 million; international organizations, $148 million; supporting assistance, $415 million; contingency fund, $300 million; administrative expenses, $53 million.
Eliminated House provision prohibiting loans or grants to United Nations or the purchase of U.N. bonds until all U.N. members had paid their full share of expenses.
Relaxed Senate's prohibition of aid to countries known to be dominated by communism and Marxism, by permitting the President to continue assistance if he determines aid may eventually help countries win freedom from communism and is in the national interest.
Remove the ceiling on aid to India.
Authorized the President to suspend assistance when any government nationalizes or expropriates American property or practices discrimination against property owned by American citizens.
Confined authority under this act for U.S. participation in international fairs to those held abroad.
Increased from $18,000 to $21,000 the amount of funds available for contributions to Bureau of Interparliamentary Union.
Prohibited aid to Cuba but gave the President discretionary authority when, in the national interest, to give assistance to countries furnishing assistance to Cuba.
International Monetary Fund — Bretton Woods Agreement Act
H.R. 10162 — Public Law 87-490, approved June 19, 1962
Amends the Bretton Woods Act to authorize the Secretary of Treasury to loan up to $2 billion to the International Monetary Fund so that 10 industrialized nations , including the United States, can participate in a special lending arrangement.
The Fund was originally set up with $6 billion. Growth of world trade and international financial commitments have made this reserve inadequate in case one of the larger, more industrial countries should need help. In 1959, all member nations agreed to a general increase of 50 percent of their initial quota. But the Fund is still deemed inadequate and this legislation would alleviate the situation by setting up a special standby loan fund to meet the needs of 10 industrialized countries (United States, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom).
This proposal, first suggested by the Fund Director in 1961, calls for $6 billion to be raised by the 10 nations, $2 billion of which would come from the United States. The 10 participants have already met (last November) and agreed on a working arrangement.
The standby loan fund will be exclusively for the 10, but it will use the existing lending machinery of the International Monetary Fund. It will go into effect after seven nations have formally agreed. Original duration will be 4 years, but it can be extended.
Peace Corps Authorization
H.R. 10700 — Public Law 87-442, approved April 27, 1962
Authorized an appropriation of $63,750,000 to finance activities of the Peace Corps through fiscal 1963. The authorization last year was for $40 million, however, only $30 million was appropriated.
The $63.75 million will enable the Peace Corps to finance their present projects and initiate new ones. Of this amount $17.10 million will be used to continue in service during fiscal 1963 the 1,900 volunteers who are either overseas or in training projects directly administered by the Peace Corps.
The sum of $15.29 million will pay the costs for 2,150 volunteers who will enter training in July and August of 1962; $14.76 million will pay the costs for 990 volunteers who will enter training between September 1, 1962, and June 30, 1963. The $14.76 million will also cover much of the total costs for the entire period of service in the Peace Corps of 600 volunteers who will be in projects commencing during that period and to be administered by voluntary agencies or universities through contracts with the Peace Corps.
The amount of $16.60 million will pay for the training costs of 3,070 volunteers who will enter training in July and August of 1963 for projects directly administered by the Peace Corps. In addition, this amount will be used to pay the total costs for the entire period of service in the Peace Corps of 600 volunteers who will enter training in July and August of 1963 for projects administered by voluntary agencies or universities through contracts with the Peace Corps.
Thus, by the end of fiscal 1963, the Peace Corps, will have 6,700 volunteers either overseas or in training and by September 1, 1963, 9,970 volunteers.
Trade Expansion Act of 1962
H.R. 11970 — Public Law 87-794, approved October 11, 1962
Congress enacted one of the most far-reaching and modern trade expansion acts in its history.
Briefly, the bill gives the President general authority to cut all tariffs as much as 50 percent over the next 5 years.
Empowers the President to remove tariffs on products in which the United States and Western Europe account for 80 percent of the free world trade.
Establishes a new adjustment assistance program for industries, firms, and employees injured or threatened with serious injury by increased imports resulting from concessions granted in trade agreements. Import-injured companies may receive adjustment assistance in the form of technical assistance, loans, or permission to carry back a net operating loss for tax purposes to 5 years rather than the normal 3 years.
Eligible workers would receive adjustment assistance in the form of weekly allowances, retraining, and, in some cases, relocation allowances. Allowances will be payable only to workers who have been employed substantially during the past 3 years and who have been attached at least 6 months in the past year to a firm affected by imports and who have become unemployed because of lack of work due in major part to the increased imports.
Adjustment allowance will be 65 percent of worker's average weekly wage subject to a limit of 65 percent of national average manufacturing wage.
Limits duration to 52 weeks with two exceptions, one to assist in completing retraining and one for workers over 60.
Prohibits allowances to workers who refuse, without good cause, to be retrained.
Provides that trade readjustment allowances will replace State unemployment insurance; funds for these trade allowances will be Federal only.
Removes the peril-point provision of present law which empowers the Tariff Commission to recommend minimum safe tariffs on specific items prior to international trade negotiations. This bill authorizes the Commission only to advise the President on the probably economic effect of any proposed trade agreement action.
Retains substantially the escape-clause provision in existing law under which the Tariff Commission can recommend that the President impose import restrictions if an industry proves to the Commission that it has suffered because of reduced tariff barriers.
Conditionally precludes Presidential negotiation for 5 years of rates of duty on articles involved in escape-clause findings of injury where escape action was not taken by the President.
Continued existing embargo in certain furs from Communist China and Russia.
Authorizes the President to appoint a special representative for trade negotiations as the chief representative of the United States in all trade negotiations; and required the President to establish a Cabinet-level interagency trade organization headed by the special representative and composed of department heads chosen by the President.
Requires the President to send to Congress a report on trade agreements and an annual report on trade adjustments.
Precludes the President from extending most-favored-nation treatment to products of Poland and Yugoslavia.
In signing the bill President Kennedy said:
Today I am signing H.R. 11970, the Trade Expansion Act of 1962.
This is the most important international piece of legislation, I think, affecting economics since the passage of the Marshall plan. It marks a decisive point for the future of our economy, for our relations with our friends and allies, and for the prospects of free institutions and free societies everywhere.
This act recognizes, fully and completely, that we cannot protect our economy by stagnating behind tariff walls, but that the best protection possible is a mutual lowering of tariff barriers among friendly nations so that all may benefit from a free flow of goods. Increased economic activity resulting from increased trade will provide more job opportunities for our workers. Our industry, our agriculture, our mining will benefit from increased export opportunities as other nations agree to lower their tariffs. Increased exports and imports will benefit our ports, steamship lines, and airlines as they handle an increased amount of trade. Lowering of our tariffs will provide an increased flow of goods for our American consumers. Our industries will be stimulated by increased export opportunities and by freer competition with the industries of other nations for an even greater effort to develop an efficient economic and productive system. The results can bring a dynamic new era of growth.
By means of agreements authorized by the Act, we can move forward to partnership with the nations of the Atlantic Community. Together with the Common Market, we account for 90 percent of the free world's trade in industrial products. Together we make up— and I think this is most important in this vital period—the greatest aggregation of economic power in the history of the world. We now have the means to make certain that we build our strength together and that we can maintain this preeminence.
We shall also use the authority of the act to negotiate with our other great trading partners, Canada and Japan, and with the countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa—and we are particularly concerned that the countries of Latin America shall have an opportunity to participate in this period of economic growth particularly as it affects the Common Market as well as our own United States. We will use the specific authorities designed to widen markets for the raw materials and manufactures of the less developed nations whose economic growth is so important to us all and to strengthen our efforts to end discriminatory and preferential arrangements which in the long run can only make everyone poorer and the free world less united.
A vital expanding economy in the free world is a strong counter to the threat of the world Communist movement. This act is, therefore, an important new weapon to advance the cause of freedom.
S. 2768 — Public Law 87-731, approved October 2, 1962
Authorized the President to lend the United Nations up to $100 million on a dollar-for-dollar matching basis with other nations to help the U.N. out of its financial difficulties thus limiting U.S. purchases to the exact amount bought by other countries.
Required the U.N. to collect the money from the pledging countries or have ironclad commitments for purchases before U.S. purchases can be made.
Expressed congressional satisfaction that the International Court of Justice decided that the expenditures authorized in resolutions of the U.N. General Assembly relating to operations in the Middle East and the Congo are "expenses of the organization" within the meaning of the United Nations Charter so that members who fell 2 years behind in assessments would lose their rights to vote in the Assembly.
Expressed congressional sentiment that the bond issue is a once-only matter and the world organization must pursue a more vigorous policy for prompt payment of membership assessments and for a more equitable system of assessments.
In signing the bill President Kennedy said:
This legislation will permit the United States to lend up to $100 million to the United Nations in order to help it meet the financial crisis it faces. This crisis is largely the result of the failure of some members of the organization to pay their share of the costs of the peacekeeping machinery in the Middle East and in the Congo. I believe that that machinery and those activities of the United Nations are vital to the peace of the world. They have helped prevent major armed conflicts and advanced the means of reconciliation between opposing factions. We must continue to give our firm and full support to these efforts.
For centuries, men have dreamed of a way to secure world peace. To translate these dreams into hard reality has become the great imperative of our time. This legislation demonstrates the determination of the American people to support the United Nations in this demanding task in the years ahead, and to help marshal the resources needed by the United Nations in pursuit of a just and lasting peace among all nations of the world.
I congratulate the Members of Congress who participated in this important demonstration of our dedication to that ideal.
S. 1291 — Passed Senate July 9; pending in House Interstate and Foreign Commerce Committee
Authorized Secretary of Commerce to employ aliens in a scientific or technical capacity.
This legislation will enable the Department to make the best possible use of available scientific manpower. Any employment, however, will continue to be subject to a prior determination that no qualified U.S. citizen is available for the particular position.
In certain areas of research now important in the technical program of the national Bureau of Standards, the availability of U.S. citizens with adequate specific training is extremely limited. Two factors have contributed to this situation. In the first place, the well-recognized general shortage of scientists and engineers in the United States has definitely restricted the Bureau's ability to fill important research positions. Secondly, some important Bureau research programs are in areas of the physical sciences that have not in recent years been fashionable or attractive to American students and scientists. In such fields, the training of new research scientists in American universities has been limited and the supply of new research personnel has continued to decline.
Export-Import Bank Act Extension
H.R. 3872 — Public Law 88-101, approved August 20, 1963
Extends the life of the Export-Import Bank of Washington for 5 years to June 30, 1968. It increases the lending authority of the Bank from $7 billion to $9 billion and raises by $2 billion the total amount of loan insurance and guarantees the Bank is authorized to have outstanding at any one time.
Without further increasing the capitalization of the bank, it increases from $1 billion to $2 billion the face value of insurance policies which the bank may write with 25 percent reserve backing.
Substitutes annual for semiannual reporting by the Bank.
Foreign Aid Authorization, 1964
H.R. 7885 — Public Law, 88-205, approved December 16, 1963
Authorized $3,599,050,000 in foreign aid funds for fiscal 1964. The administration had requested $4.5 billion, the House passed $3.5 billion, and the Senate passed $3.7 billion.
Major provisions are:
Funds for fiscal year 1964
Schools and hospitals abroad.......$19,000,000
Alliance for Progress..................$525,000,000
Latin American development........$180,000,000
Expressed as the sense of Congress that the institution of full investment guaranty programs with all recipient countries would be regarded as a significant measure of self-help by such countries improving the climate for private investment both domestic and foreign.
Also expressed as the sense of Congress that aid should be extended to or withheld from the Government of South Vietnam in the discretion of the President, to further the objectives of victory in the war against communism and the return to their homeland of Americans involved in that struggle.
Bars assistance under the Development Loan Fund unless the President determines the project is a part of the economic development of the country and specifically provides for appropriate participation by private enterprise.
Reduced the Development Load Fund authorization from $1.5 billion to $925 million for fiscal year 1964. Authorizes a total of $220 million in new authority for development grants and technical cooperation (excluding Alliance for Progress) in fiscal year 1964.
Investment guarantees: Retained the present ceiling of $180 million for the extended risk guarantee program which, thus far, is concentrated on Latin American housing. Requires that aid be cut off from any less developed country which refuses after December 31, 1965, to agree to U.S. programs guaranteeing investors against specific risks of inconvertibility, expropriation, or confiscation.
Development Research: Provided that funds available under this section may be used to conduct research into the problem of population growth.
Alliance for Progress: Authorized $525 million for fiscal year 1964 out of which $100 million would be available for development grants. Directs the President, when appropriate, to assist in promoting the organization, implementation, and growth of the cooperative movement in Latin America.
Evaluation of Programs: Permits the President to appoint a committee to review and evaluate the economic aid program in each country receiving economic aid.
Military Assistance: Bars such assistance to any Latin American country except (1) to the extent necessary to fulfill prior commitments or (2) to the extent that the President finds such aid necessary to safeguard the security of the United States or to safeguard the security of a country associated with the United States in the Alliance for Progress against overthrow of a duly constituted government and so informs Congress. Reduces the ceiling on grant programs of defense articles for Latin American Republics to $55 million. Places a ceiling of $25 million on grant programs of defense articles for African countries and allows military assistance to Africa only for internal security or civic action programs unless the President determines otherwise and reports such determination to the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations and the Speaker of the House.
General Provision: Amends existing law to (1) require utilization wherever practicable of the services of U.S. private enterprise (including, but not limited to, the services of experts and consultants in technical fields such as engineering); (2) take appropriate steps to discourage, in any recipient country, the nationalization, expropriation, confiscation, seizure of ownership or control of private investment, and also to deter discriminatory or other actions having a similar effect, which divert available resources essential to create new wealth, employment, and productivity in those countries, and thus impair the climate for new private investment.
Establishes an Advisory Committee on Private Enterprise in Foreign Aid to study and make recommendations for achieving the most effective utilization of private enterprise under the aid program. Committee to be comprised of nine members selected from business, labor and professional world, from the universities and foundations, and from among persons with extensive experience in government. Final report December 31, 1964.
Authorizes the Secretary of Treasury to sell U.S.-owned foreign currencies to U.S. citizens for travel or other purposes. The currencies to be sold are those acquired through operations under the Foreign Assistance Act, the Mutual Security Act and any act repealed thereby, or the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act (Public Law 480). To be available for sale, the currencies must be in excess of the needs of U.S. Government agencies and departments and not prohibited from such use or committed to other uses by agreements heretofore entered into with another country.
Prohibits funds made available under the act (except those for American schools and hospitals abroad) from being used to furnish assistance to any country which fails to take measures to prevent ships and aircraft under its registry from transporting items to and from Cuba. Prohibits any aid to Cuba on the assignment of any sugar quota to Cuba until appropriate steps according to international law standards are taken to compensate U.S. citizens for property taken after January 1, 1959, by the Government of Cuba, except as may be deemed necessary by the President in the interest of the United States.
Prohibits assistance under this or any other act as well as any sales under Public Law 480 to any country which the President determines is engaging in or preparing for aggressive military efforts directed against (1) the United States, (2) any country receiving assistance under this or any other act, or (3) any country to which sales are made under Public Law 480, until the President determines that such military efforts or preparations will not be renewed. Provides that this restriction may not be waived. (Aimed ay United Arab Republic.)
Prohibits assistance to Indonesia unless the President determines the aid is essential to our national interest. Requires the President to keep the Foreign Relations Committee and the Appropriations Committee of the Senate and the Speaker of the House fully informed of any aid to Indonesia under this act.
Bars assistance on a grant basis under this act to any economically developed nation capable of sustaining its own defense burden and economic growth except (1) to fulfill firm commitments made prior to July 1, 1963, or (2) additional orientation and training expenses not to exceed $1 million during fiscal year 1964.
In providing technical assistance under this act, the head of any such agency or officer must utilize, to the fullest extent practical, goods and professional and other services from private enterprise on a contract basis. In such fields as education, health, housing, or agriculture, the facilities and resources of other Federal agencies must be utilized when they are particularly or uniquely suitable for technical assistance, are not competitive with private enterprise, and can be made available without interfering unduly with domestic programs.
Requires the President in making an economic assistance loan, except a loan to the International Development Association, to establish an interest rate of 2 percent or more, except during an initial grace period on principal repayments which may not exceed 10 years. During the grace period, interest can be as low as three-quarters of 1 percent.
Prohibits a loan, grant, or commitment exceeding $100 million for any particular project until passage of the 1964 Foreign Aid Act.
Provides that no provision of the Foreign Assistance Act should be construed to prohibit carrying out programs under the Peace Corps Act or the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act, the Export-Import Bank, and Public Law 480 aid.
Limits administrative expenses to $54 million for fiscal year 1964.
Amends the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 to authorize the President to extend to Poland and Yugoslavia trade agreement concessions on a nondiscriminatory basis where it is in our national interest to maintain trade contacts.
Amends section 106 of Public Law 480 to include in title I and title IV programs any domestically produced fishery product if the Secretary of Interior determines that the product at the time of export is in excess of domestic requirements, adequate carryover, and anticipated exports for dollars. Change in title I to become effective January 1, 1965.
In signing the act President Johnson said:
I have today signed the Foreign Assistance Act of 1963. The economic and military aid programs authorized by this bill are indispensable to the security of the United States and the free world. This bill reflects this Nation's determination to maintain that security by helping those nations willing to help themselves.
It also reflects, unfortunately, the growing tendency to hamstring executive flexibility with rigid legislative provisions wholly inappropriate and potentially dangerous in a world of rapid change. I wish to make clear now, for example, that - when a free and peaceful government is ever established in Cuba - I intend to exercise my authority to provide essential health, educational, and other assistance to the Cuban people, without waiting for a long and complex adjudication.
In addition, this bill reflects a dangerous reduction in funds and a consequent dangerous reduction in our security. We cannot oppose the spread of communism and promote the growth of freedom by giving speeches. A policy of weakness and retreat - which any further reduction at the appropriation stage would represent - cannot be justified by the needs of our security, the financial strength of our Nation, or the attitude of our citizens.
All of us desire a greater efficiency in our aid programs - and, make no mistake about it, we are going to improve it - but in our pursuit of efficiency, let us not hamper the progress and safety of free men.
I have already directed Administrator Bell to put our foreign operations on a sounder basis - to insist on maximum effort by aid recipients - and to intensify our efforts to eliminate excess or ineffective personnel. We will resist reorganization for reorganization's sake - but we do intend to present to the Congress next year a more effective, efficient aid program.
Our cautious new hopes for a reduction in the risk of all-out war may only imply an increase in Communist efforts to prevail through economic, political, and conventional military means, particularly in the underdeveloped countries. The aid programs of Truman, Eisenhower, and Kennedy are needed now more than ever - this is no time to fail.
Foreign Chanceries in District of Columbia
S. 646 — Passed Senate July 24; pending in House District of Columbia Committee
This bill provides that after enactment a foreign government cannot construct, alter, repair, convert, or occupy any building used or to be used as a chancery, chancery annex, or other business office in any residentially zoned area within the District of Columbia. This prohibition, however, does not apply to ordinary repairs.
Foreign Service Buildings - Philippine Claims
H.R. 5207 — Public Law 88-94, approved August 12, 1963
Authorizes an appropriation of $49,824,000 for a 2 year Foreign Service buildings program. Of this amount $26,324,000 is to be used for purchase, construction, major alteration, and long-term leasing of buildings overseas and up to $23,500,000 for maintenance, repairs and other operating expenses.
Amends the Philippine War Claims Act of 1962 by earmarking (1) between $30 and $40 million for claimants up to $25,000, (2) between $30 and $40 million for the Government of the Philippines to be used for the purpose of furthering educational exchange and other educational programs to the mutual advantage of the Republic of the Philippines and the United States, and (3) the remainder to revert to the U.S. Treasury.
Continues the prohibition in existing law against payment or receipt of an amount in excess of 5 percent of any claim as remuneration for services rendered in connection therewith, together with the applicable penalties. In addition, this act specifically provides that no former commissioner or employee of the Philippine War Damage Commission or their assigns, and no person associated with any such commissioner or employee in connection with any claim filed under the Philippine War Claims Act will be eligible to receive any remuneration whatever in connection with the claim. It also provides that anyone who pays remuneration in violation of this prohibition will be subject to a fine of $5,000 or imprisonment for 1 year, or both; and anyone who receives such remuneration will be subject to a fine of $5,000 or imprisonment for 5 years, or both. In addition the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission will be required to take action to recover from anyone receiving such remuneration an amount equal to three times the amount of remuneration received.
Hague Conference - Rome Institute
H.J. Res. 778 — Public Law 88-244, approved December 30, 1963
Authorizes the President to accept membership for the U.S. Government in the Hague Conference on Private International Law and the International (Rome) Institute for the Unification of Private Law.
Authorizes the President to appoint U.S. delegates and alternates to meetings of the two organizations.
Authorizes up to $25,000 annually for payment by the United States of its proportionate share of the expenses of the two organizations and other expenses incident to U.S. participation.
House Joint Resolution 405 — Public Law 88-69, approved July 19, 1963
Increased the ceiling on the U.S. contribution to the International Bureau for the Protection of Industrial Property from $7,250 to $15,000 a year.
The Bureau, located in Geneva, Switzerland, is the secretariat of the International Union for the Protection of Industrial Property. The Union is composed of 51 countries, including the United States, which are parties to the Convention of Paris for the Protection of Industrial Property. This convention is and has been for more than 70 years the major instrumentality through which the patents, trademarks, and industrial designs of U.S. inventors, industries, and business are assured protection in the other 50 member countries.
The ceiling increase is made necessary by (1) general increase in salaries and the rising cost of printing materials and services; (2) reorganization of the Bureau in order to increase its efficiency and usefulness to member states; and (3) new activities including increased efforts to have additional countries adhere to the Union, cooperation with the U.N. in industrial property matters, and technical legal assistance to less developed countries.
International Commission for Supervision and Control in Laos
S. 1627 — Passed Senate July 16; pending in House Foreign Affairs Committee
Permanently authorizes appropriations, as necessary, for the United States to contribute its share of the expenses of the International Commission for Supervision and Control in Laos as provided in article 18 of the Protocol to the Declaration on the Neutrality of Laos. The international Control Commission was reestablished by action of the 1962 Geneva agreements signed by the United States and 13 other nations on July 23, 1962.
The Commission supervises and controls the withdrawal of foreign military personnel from Laos; supervises and controls the cease-fire in Laos; investigates cases of illegal introduction of foreign military personnel into Laos; assists the Government of Laos in cases of illegal introduction of armaments into Laos; and investigates other possible violations of the provisions of the protocol and the declaration, the most important being the undertaking by the signatories not to use the territory of Laos as a corridor for interference in the internal affairs of other countries.
The protocol provides that the United States contribute 17.6 percent of the operational costs of the Commission, which will amount to approximately $650,000.
Marking Requirements for Articles Imported in Containers
H.R. 2513 — Vetoed December 31, 1963
This bill provides when articles imported in containers are repackaged in the United States and offered for sale, the new packages must be marked to show the country of origin of their contents.
Requires that the containers in which such articles are imported be marked, in addition to the country-of-origin marking, to indicate to any person who repackages such articles that, subject to penalties of law, the new packages must be marked to indicate to an ultimate purchaser the country of origin of their contents.
Requires when such articles are sold for use as, or used as, containers for other goods offered for sale, such containers must be marked to indicate to an ultimate purchaser of the goods the country of origin of the containers.
Requires marking of all imported foreign sawed lumber to indicate to the ultimate purchaser in the United States the name of the country of origin.
House Joint Resolution 324 — Public Law 88-95, approved August 12, 1963.
Senate Joint Resolution 72 — Public Law 88-124, approved September 16, 1963.
These resolutions provide congressional endorsement for the invitations to be extended by the U.S. Olympic Association to hold the principal games in 1968 at Detroit and the winter games at Lake Placid.
Peace Corps Expansion
H.R. 9009 — Public Law 88-200, approved December 13, 1963
Authorizes an additional $38,250,000, or a total of $102 million, for the Peace Corps for fiscal 1964, to increase the number of volunteers to 11,300 by August 31, 1964.
Permits the Peace Corps to leave in foreign countries supplies or equipment, such as teaching aids, provided to the volunteers for their work there, and expands the voluntary service principle into the area of oversea administration by authorizing assignment of up to 100 volunteers to carry out secretarial duties in the staffs of Corps representatives abroad.
South Pacific Commission
House Joint Resolution 779— Passed Senate, amended, December 17, 1963
Increases from $100,000 to $150,000 the annual U.S. contribution to the South Pacific Commission for calendar years 1964 and 1965.
The South Pacific Commission, created in 1948, is composed of the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Australia, and New Zealand.
The proposed increase reflects benefits derived by the U.S. territories from the work of the Commission and a recognition of the primary importance of the Pacific Islands to the security of the United States and the free world.
United Nations Participation Act Amendment
S. 949 — Passed Senate December 6; H.R. 6283—House Calendar
Authorizes appointment of a representative in Europe of the U.S. mission to the United Nations and permits shifting assignments of mission members.
Specifically the bill provides statutory authority for the position of the U.S. representative to the European office of the United nations in Geneva. The President would be authorized to designate that official's rank and status; the appointment would be subject to Senate confirmation; and the appointee would also represent the United States in connection with other international organization activities at Geneva at the discretion of the Secretary of State.
Under existing law, of the five top members of the U.S. mission, only three may represent this country in the Security Council, and only the main U.S. representative and his first deputy may represent the United States both in the Security Council and in any organ, commission, or other body of the U.N. other than specialized agencies. This bill would permit the use of the five top officials as a group of interchangeable representatives.
U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Act Amendment
S. 777 — Public Law 88-186, approved November 26, 1963
Amend the Arms Control and Disarmament Act of 1961 to —
Increase to $20 million the authorization for the 2-year period, 1964 and 1965, for the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency.
Change the requirements for security investigations for actual or prospective contractors and subcontractors and their personnel by authorizing the Director to accept, in lieu of full-field investigations by the Civil Service Commission or the FBI, a report of an investigation conducted by another Government agency, such as the Defense Department, the Central Intelligence Agency, the Atomic Energy Commission, etc. Thus under this change an investigation of a contractor made within the preceding 5 years would be accepted and brought up to date by the ACDA, the FBI, or the Civil Service Commission through a name check rather than a full-field investigation, unless something derogatory were disclosed, in which case a full-field investigation would be conducted.
Clearly state that nothing in the act authorizes the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency to deal with the question of the right of individuals to possess firearms for their own use.
Prohibit the Agency from spending its funds for promoting its legislation before Congress.
Limit the applicability of the proviso in section 33 of the act regarding firearms to actions taken under the authority of the Arms Control and Disarmament Act.
Prohibit the Agency from obligating more than 20 percent of its funds in the last month of a fiscal year.
World Bank Capital Stock Increase
H.R. 7405 — Public Law 88-178, approved November 13, 1963
Adds a new section to the Bretton Woods Agreements Act authorizing the U.S. Governor of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) to vote for a $1 billion increase in the capital stock of the Bank. The increase is required to permit new member countries of the Bank to subscribe and to enable present members to increase their subscription when appropriate.