1-7 | 8-14 | 15-21 | 22-30

April 1, 1961

A week before the French and the Algerian nationalists were to open peace talks in the French town where a terrorist bomb killed the Mayor yesterday ’ the parley appeared to be stalled indefinitely. The nationalists had known that Paris was planned to consult with other Algerian factions, but they suddenly announced that, because of this French policy, they would not go to Evian as scheduled. (1:8)

Fighting flared again in the Congo, where Katanga troops took Manono, capital of "independent" Luluaba state, from Leftist forces. (2:4-6)

A United States plan to resolve the Congo crisis appeared to be ready for presentation soon to the United Nations. The Kennedy Administration was expected to call for continued U.N. "presence", a halt in outside interference, a temporary return to fundamental Congolese law and talks among rival factions to change the constitution and develop a sound federal structure. (1:7)

Prince Souvanna Phouma, the touring neutralist ex-Premier of Laos, said in London that he was ready to end Soviet military aid to Laos if United States aid stopped at the same time. (1:6)

The Justice Department disclosed that the ultra-conservative John Birch Society was "a matter of concern" to Attorney General Kennedy. A society spokesmen said that one of the group’s major aims was the impeachment of Chief Justice Earl Warren for voting "in favor of Communists and subversives." (1:6)

Organized labor has quietly pledged its help to the Peace Corps, apparently satisfied that the corps would not be "a junket for a bunch of college co-eds" and that skilled union craftsmen would be needed for overseas projects. (1:1)

Prestige of U.S. gains in Panama. (pg. 4)

U.S. studying report of plot to kidnap Caroline. (pg. 7)

April 2, 1961

In its long-awaited reply to Western peace proposals for Laos, the Soviet Union called for an international conference to negotiate a settlement whereby the Southeast Asian kingdom would become an independent and neutral nation. Of the Western proposal for an immediate cease-fire, Moscow said it favored an appeal to the belligerents but did not accept the Western view that a truce should precede the conference. (1:8; text, pg. 3)

London saw a possible obstacle to an international conference in the Russians’ recognition of the Souvanna Phouma regime as the "lawful" Laotian government. (2:3)

The Soviet reply was welcomed by President Kennedy as a "useful next step" toward a Laos settlement. Mr. Rusk said a cease-fire need not be formal, but could be a simple halt in fighting. (1:6-7; Tex, PG. 2)

A week’s lull in major fighting within Laos ended when a pro-Communist force attacked and occupied the strategic village of Tha Thom. Numbers of North Vietnamese were said to be among the attackers. (1:7)

Tough Indian Gurkha troops were flown into the Congo’s Katanga Province by the United Nations despite warnings by President Tshombe that this would be regarded as an "act of war" (12:1)

Africa will be the first stop in a tour by Lyndon Johnson, he left on his first overseas mission as Vice President. He will represent President Kennedy at the independence celebrations in Senegal tomorrow and then go to Switzerland, France and Spain in his week-long assignment. (3:1-2)

An exchange of letters between King Hussein and President Nasser that Cairo called a turning point ward better relations. (1:5)

President Kennedy assured Congress that he had no intention of subordinating the activities of the civilian space agency to those of the military. (1:1)

The first military operational assignment in space was given to the Air Force ’ the responsibility for operating all reconnaissance satellites for the collection of intelligence. The move indicated that Air Force research and development assignments in space meant operational authority afterward. (1:2)

After attending church in Palm Beach, the President and Mrs. Kennedy will join other members of the Kennedy family for dinner at the house of the President’s father. (67:1-2)

Red China warns on troop intervention in Laos. (pg. 2)

Cuban refugees create paradox in Miami. (pg. 1)

Monorail marks Century 21 fair in Miami. (pg. 1)

Birch Society now organized in 34 states. (pg. 62)

Threat of Atlantic air cargo war averted. (pg. 86)

April 3, 1961

Because of Moscow’s vagueness over a cease-fire in its reply on Laos, authoritative sources in Washington said the Administration would be adamant on an effective and verified halt in hostilities before sitting down at an international conference table. (1:8)

Negotiations between the Leopoldville Government and the Stanleyville regime of Antoine Gizenga will get under way today. (1:8)

Adoption is expected by the General Assembly of an Indian resolution giving the Secretary General stop-gap authority to make commitments for the Congo operation. (1:6)

To fill out stand-by units for possible action in the Far East, the Pentagon plans to send out another 1,500-man battle unit, presumably to Hawaii. The Army will also double its 1,800-man special force of guerilla fight units. However, there is no indication of any major Army build-up. (1:4)

A reinforced security guard was in evidence as President and Mrs. Kennedy attended Easter service in Palm Beach, Fla. A week-old report had said the church would be the scene of an attempt by pro-Castro Cubans to injure the family or kidnap 3-year-old Caroline. (1:2)

The President, meanwhile, enters the eleventh week of his term with a record of accomplishment that lacks the dramatic success of the early Roosevelt days, but that compares favorably with the first Eisenhower months. Mr. Kennedy set at least one record: fifteen messages to Congress in 73 days. (21:1)

The Kennedy Administration gave the National Science Foundation its largest budget increase in history. (1:5)

A business cycle barometer developed by the National Bureau of Economic Research indicated that the United States economy might have reached the bottom of the decline in general business activity. And economists see hints of an upswing. (1:3)

April 4, 1961

In a document written in the White House under President Kennedy’s close direction, the United States called on Premier Castro’s Cuban regime to cut "its links with the international Communist movement." Dr. Castro was urged to "restore the dignity" of the original Cuban revolution. Acknowledging past errors in relations with Cuba, the United States said it would help Cuba achieve the true purposes of the revolution if democratic government were restored there. However, the Castro regime was branded a "danger" to the "authentic" revolution of the Americas. (1:8)

The United States-Cuban relations were strained further over the interception of a United States cable-repair ship by a Cuban gunboat in international water last Friday. The Cubans released the ship when an American destroyer and Navy jet planes rushed to the scene. (1:7)

Announcement that President Kennedy would fly to France on May 31 to confer with the French leader for three days. Mr. Kennedy’s most difficult diplomatic undertaking, for ’ just after his forty-fourth birthday ’ he will attempt person-to-person bargaining with the austere 70-year-old General de Gaulle on such touchy matters as NATO, nuclear tests, Africa and colonialism. (1:5)

United States Ambassador in Tunis met for a two-hour "exchange of views" with two ministers of the rebel Algerian Provisional Government. Reports that Washington planned to urge France and the rebels to hold their peace conference as soon as possible. (1:7)

In London several thousand demonstrators marched into Grosvenor Square and tried to stage a sit-down protest against American Polaris missiles. (1:6)

Nehru hinted that a campaign to oust Rajeshwar Dayal, head of the United Nations mission in the Congo, could lead to a withdrawal of Indian troops. Nehru gave his approval to the use of force by the Indian units if the United Nations Command found it necessary. (9:2)

Lofti, the small piggyback satellite that stubbornly refused to leave its mother rocket, has done a good job anyway. The Navy said that had made some unexpected discoveries about radio waves that could bring "remarkable advances." (23:1)

Mayor Wagner predicted that 1961-62 would be a "banner year" in the fight against slums, if about twelve urban renewal projects were approved as part of President Kennedy’s big housing program. The Mayor acted to pave the way for city participation in the broadened program. (1:2)

Further indications that the economy was on the upswing came from the automobile industry. A sharp spurt in car sales was reported across the country. (26:1)

Red China to free ill U.S. prisoner. (Page 1)

Poland modifies anti-church policy. (Page 2)

Senegalese hail Vice-President Johnson’s visit. (Page 3)

Laos to insist on halt in Soviet airlift. (Page 11)

15 named to equal job opportunity group. (Page 24)

10,000 fill White House lawn for East egg roll. (Page 34)

World Bank picks liaison offer for Africa. (Page 60)

April 5, 1961

A blast rocked the Paris Stock Exchange. The attack was laid to right-wing groups that have been planting explosives in France and Algeria in a campaign against negotiations with Algerian rebels. (1:5) The United States, meanwhile, has moved to get France and rebel representatives to the conference table to discuss their differences "calmly." (13:1)

Stone-throwing Africans ran wild in Elizabethville in a rampage against United Nations troops. Whipped to frenzy by an ultimatum by President Tshombe to Swedish troops to surrender the airport or face military attack. (1:4)

Communist guerrillas and South Vietnamese troops both took to the offensive as Saigon approached its first Presidential election Sunday. The Communists are seeking to force him to give way to a united front Government that would agree to reunification with Communist North Vietnam. (10:4)

President Kennedy posed for his first pictures on a golf course. (1:2-3-4)

Secretary of Defense was warning a Senate committee that in the "present state of the art" of the warning system we face the possibility that an unclear warning could set off a nuclear war. (1:1)

Army will teach guerrilla tactics to Latin American soldiers. (1:7)

The Labor Department reported that both employment and unemployment set records for the month of March. The number of jobless declined by 200,000. Employment rose 861,000. The usual March increase is 600,000. (1:2)

Soviet supports sanctions on South Africa. (Page 2)

Cuba frees 2 U.S. citizens held since March 24. (Page 18)

South Carolina Senate assails Frank Graham. (Page 24)

April 6, 1961

Cuba’s Foreign Minister accused Washington of waging undeclared war and of supporting a "so-called liberation army of 4,000 to 50,000 counter-revolutionaries, mercenaries and adventurers." (1:8)

Washington accused the Castro Government of not supplying all the needed food and medicine for twenty-two American citizens in Cuban jails. The State Department said even the Red Cross had been "unable to get in to talk to the prisoners." (1:8)

A major show of military force by the U.N. in the Congo’s Katanga Province appeared in the making as Secretary General Hammarskjöld told the General Assembly that the entire 5,000 man contingent of Indian Gurkhas would be sent to the former Belgian base at Kamina. (1:6-7)

In a move designed to "give a lift to economic activity and employment," the Small Business Administration announced a reduction from 5 to 4 per cent in the interest rate on loans to small businesses and local and state development companies in areas of high unemployment. (1:1)

The first of four articles on the unemployment situation points up a problem that has become President Kennedy’s most acute domestic worry ’ the fear that even after the slump has been shaken off, millions of workers will remain idle. (1:2-3)

Mayor Wagner flew south to Florida for about ten days to recuperate from his recent tumor operation. (34:6-7)

U.S. to vote against South African sanctions. (Page 6)

Large rebel force surrenders in Indonesia. (Page 10)

McCann in Hong Kong after release by China. (Page 10)

Soviet drops U-2 complaint from U.N. agenda. (Page 13)

Senators back nominee for envoy to Rome. (Page 13)

Chamber of Commerce head praises Kennedy. (Page 19)

April 7, 1961

Chill gusts of wind whipped the surface of the usually placid Potomac yesterday as the Presidential yacht Honey Fitz set sail for a two-hour-and-forty-minute cruise past historical reminders of early British-American battles. Aboard the yacht were the present leaders of the two countries, Prime Minister Macmillan and President Kennedy. (1:8)

In London, there was a growing impression among diplomats that Moscow, prodded by Communist China, would like to see a Laotian cease-fire begin the same day as an international conference. (1:7)

Prime Minister Macmillan attended a White House Luncheon with the Senate Foreign Relations Committee before the cruise. (5:6)

That luncheon was the official debut of a new White House chef (and a French one). He is Rene Verdon. (1:3-5)

For nearly nine months Cuban exile military forces have been training in the United States and Central American, and now feel they have reached the stage of adequate preparation to join with internal forces in Cuba to overthrow the Castro regime. Between 5,000 and 6,000 men ’ said to comprise an air force, a navy and a paratroop units ’ are concentrated at two major camps in Guatemala and at a base in Louisiana. (1:4)

The N.A.A.C.P. challenged the Administration’s award of a billion-dollar jet contract to Lockheed as a "shameful mockery" of the President’s order against discrimination in work for the Government. (1:1)

The Government, unions, and employers have assigned priority to a search for ways to cushion the human toll of automation. (1:2-3)

Navy warned Cuba of force to free ship. (Page 2)

U.S. aides meet Cuban exile leader. (Page 2)

Navy to try barter of food for foreign oil. (Page 6)

U.S. court bars Negro evictions in Tennessee. (Page 17)

Attorney General scores the Birch Society. (Page 15)

April 8, 1961

Prime Minister Macmillan, at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, said the time had come to "achieve some real unity of political purpose and method in the Western Alliance. He called for unity in the fields of defense, economics, and international finance. (1:8)

President Kennedy asked Congress for $10,000,000 to join in an international effort to save ancient Nubian temples and other monuments on the upper Nile River that are marked for inundation by the Soviet-financed Aswan Dam. (3:4)

The President had some high praise for Lyndon B. Johnson as the Vice President called at the White House on his return from a diplomatic mission to Puerto Rico, Europe and Africa. (1:5-7)

South Africa was told by the U.N. General Assembly ’ in an 83-to-0 vote ’ to desist from pursuing tyrannical policies and racial practices in South-West Africa, which it administers under an old League of Nations mandate. (1:8)

The National Catholic Education Association received a message from President Kennedy hailing "the extremely important" contribution of religious-supported private education to the nation. This came amid indications that the church hierarchy might threaten passage of his aid-to-education bill by pressing for outright grants to private schools. (10:5)

Castro orders arms display on May Day. (Page 2)

Social Security medical care plan is challenged. (Page 17)

Caroline plays in the White House backyard. (Page 1)

Axis Sally to be paroled on July 10. (Page 7)

April 9, 1961

Fidel Castro’s first Premier, now the official chief of anti-Castro Cuban forces in the United States, issued a call to arms to all Cubans yesterday to overthrow the Havana regime. Dr. Jose Miro Cardona laughed off reports that an invasion had already begun and insisted the revolt must come and would come from within. (1:8)

After five years, of exile, leading Communists of the overthrown Arbenz regime are returning to Guatemala, and the Government appears helpless to prevent their entry. (1:6)

With the conclusion of the Macmillan talks, a helicopter lifted Mr. Kennedy out of the hectic affairs of state and eased him into a quiet week-end of his Middleburg, Va. retreat. But not until he had lopped off forty-one more Government committees in his continuing effort to simplify the executive branch and promote efficiency and economy. He’ll be back in Washington tomorrow to throw out the first baseball. (32-3)

The last big piece of the Kennedy economic program will go to Congress soon ’ the main feature of which will be lower taxes for business operations, domestic and international, as an incentive to greater modernization of plans. (1:1)

The President was urged by his Food-for-Peace director to endorse a five-year, $11,000,000,000 program to feed and clothe the world’s hungry and ragged. (1:4)

Nkrumah ends official ties to business. (Page 7)

U.N. disarms Tshombe force in North Katanga. (Page 8)

Polish magazine hails Mrs. Kennedy. (Page 19)

Air Force fires Discoverer XXIII into orbit. (Page 31)

Kennedy abolishes 41 Government committees. (Page 32)

Freeman warns farmers on feed grain program. (Page 34)

April 10, 1961

Anti-Castro Cuban rebels were reported in Miami to have worked out a major decision on strategy. Instead of attempting a large-scale invasion, they will concentrate on multiple guerrilla landings in Cuba by groups ranging in size from commando units to battalions of 500 to 600 men. These are to be coordinated with internal up-risings and massive sabotage to throw the Castro regime off balance and make effective deployment of troops difficult. (1:8)

The United States is expanding its defenses at the Guantanamo Bay naval base in Cuba. (11:4)

Dr. Adenauer was host in Bonn to former Secretary of State Acheson for a five-hour discussion of the future of NATO, about which the Chancellor has become increasingly uneasy in recent weeks. A contributing cause has been reports, unconfirmed in Washington, that Mr. Acheson favors a withdrawal of the Eisenhower offer of Polaris missiles to the alliance. (1:6)

President Ngo Diem was returned to office with about 78 per cent of the vote in South Vietnam’s first Presidential election. The vote was a defeat for the Reds. (1:5)

With his head bowed in prayer, President Kennedy learned at mass in Middleburg, Va., that three lunch counters there had been quietly integrated and that the presence of his retreat outside town had figured in the settlement. (19:1-2)

An African diplomat who went out of his way to avoid an incident over restaurant discrimination has received an Administration apology for being denied service at Howard Johnson’s in Hagerstown, Md. (1:1)

The President is to ask Congress this week to create a new Cabinet Department of Urban Affairs. The move may run into difficulties because the likely department head is a Negro ’ Dr. Robert C. Weaver, the Federal housing chief. (1:2)

The Pentagon announced the suspension of all air-intercept missile training exercises pending an investigation of what caused the unintentional firing of a Sidewinder from a National Guard F-100. The Air Force confirmed that three men died in the mishap. (1:5)

State Democratic Chairman Prendergast charged in a TV interview that he and Tammany Chief De Sapio had been marked for political oblivion by a Kennedy aide on the ground they were "captives" of Italian and Jewish minorities. The aide was identified as Paul Corbin, upstate campaign coordinator, who denied the charge. (1:3-4)

State to curb billboards for Federal bonus. (Page 25)

April 11, 1961

A stream of conflicting advice has led to a sharp policy dispute within the Kennedy Administration on how much help to give Cuban refugees planning the overthrow of Fidel Castro. Some urge enough military and financial aid to let the Cuban exiles win control over at least part of their island before it is too late to dislodge Premier Castro without direct United States intervention. But others point to treaty obligations forbidding any form of interference. One decision has been made; no United States forces will be used against the Castro regime. (1:8)

Rolando Masferrer Rojas, a Senator during President Batista’s rule, was indicted by a Federal grand jury in Miami for alleged violation of the Neutrality Act. The Government charged he had plotted an abortive Cuban invasion. (1:8)

The United States joined most other United Nations members in strongly urging all members to take "separate and collective action" against South Africa to force an end of racial separation there. (1:7)

Washington’s new trend in African policy was pointed up elsewhere in the United Nations when the United States and the African-Asian bloc presented a resolution to censure Belgium and request speedy elections and other reforms in the Ruanda-Urundi trust territory. (17:3)

The trial of Adolf Eichmann got underway early this morning in Jerusalem’s House of the People. (1:6)

President Kennedy made clear the firm United States pledge to defend Europe and hinted that he wanted to hear what the Allies would do to help. (1:4)

A White House visit will also be made by Prince Souvanna Phouma, neutralist former Premier of Laos, squeezing the trip in between two parts of a Moscow visit. (1:5)

Despite his cheers and two good pitches, President Kennedy failed to get the new Washington Senators off to a winning start at the opening of the baseball season. The President groaned with the rest of the fans when sloppy Washington fielding gave the Chicago White Sox a 4 to 3 victory. (1:3-5)

Russians accept formula on test-ban unit. (Page 2)

Vietnam vote seen as a repudiation of Reds. (Page 6)

Latins praise Kennedy development plan. (Page 13)

Eichmann indictment lists fifteen counts. (Page 15)

Powell opens unfair-labor study here. (Page 1)

Tail gunner tells of downing of bomber. (Page 4)

Jobless file for extra benefits under U.S. plan. (Page 1)

Federal Reserve bond plan called a failure. (Page 61)

Steel output up for fourth consecutive week. (Page 51)

Nation’s retail sales rose 1% in March. (Page 51)

April 12, 1961

Man made his first leap beyond the earth today and returned safely. The Soviet Union announced triumphantly that a space vehicle carrying an Air Force major had been launched, orbited the earth and by use of a braking device been brought safely back through the atmosphere to a landing on Soviet territory. Two-way radio contact had been maintained with the 27-year-old officer, Maj. Yuri Gagarin. The 10,395-pound satellite; named the Vostok (East), sped between 15,000 and 18,000 miles an hour, faster than man had ever traveled, between 109.5 and 187.75 miles above the earth. (1:8)

The United States’ Project Mercury hopes to put a man into space by end of the year. (1:7-8)

The Soviet flight may eventually open a new dimension in warfare. However, its immediate effects are viewed as mainly psychological. (22:6-7)

The Attorney General of Israel resumed his defense of the right of his country to try Adolf Eichmann for the murder of millions of Jews. (1:3)

In Paris, President de Gaulle declared a virtual strike by France against the United Nations. He said that France did not wish to participate either by her men or her money in any present or possible enterprise of this organization ’ or of this disorganization. (1:7)

Chancellor Adenauer said that the German people had already developed "great confidence" in the new President. (1:6)

The President had the impression that the British Government is seriously thinking about joining the European Common Market. (1:5)

Moscow’s delay for an immediate cease-fire in Laos intelligence reports of a general increase in the flow of Soviet bloc military supplies to the Laotian rebels recently. (1:4)

William McC. Martin Jr., called for increased productivity and the passing of some of the gains on to the consumer, rather than exclusively to labor in higher wages or to management in higher profits. (1:1)

Bonn to prepay $587,000,000 post-war debt. (Page 4)

African states submit aid plan to U.N. (Page 9)

Air Force protests order to cut back B-70’s. (Page 10)

Kennedy, on TV, discourses of the Presidency. (Page 21)

Vice President meets with Negro leaders. (Page 35)

President and Mrs. Kennedy seen on television. (Page 83)

Bethlehem Steel reports upturn in business. (Page 57)

Krueger meeting votes to close plant. (Page 63)

Cream of Wheat and Nabisco plan merger. (Page 64)

April 13, 1961

Man’s first flight into space by a Soviet major. (1:8)

The Kremlin was moving swiftly to press its political and propaganda advantage. It hailed the feat as more evidence of the virtues of "victorious socialism." (16:5)

British scientists said the Soviet Union was "about three years" ahead of the United States. (15:5)

President Kennedy sent a telegram of congratulations to Moscow and then told a news conference that this country would be behind for "some time." (1:7)

The President gave a firm pledge that this country’s armed forces would not intervene in Cuba "under any conditions" and he said he would be opposed to any attempt to mount an anti Castro offensive from the United States. (1:1)

Mr. Kennedy said he had no evidence of any sharp step-up in recent days in the flow of Soviet arms to the Pathet Lao forces. (1:2)

Kennedy assured his West German visitor that there had been no policy change with the change in President. (1:2-4)

A German transport plane, on charter to Belgium’s Sabena Airlines, was impounded by the United Nations in Leopoldville after it had delivered seven tons of arms to forces of President Tshombe of Katanga. (11:1)

The President considering what long-range steps could be taken to ease the problem of hard-core unemployment, but he pointed out that Congress had done little with what he had already proposed. New moves being considered are easier credit and lower interest rates. (1:5)

The Atomic Energy Commission announced the creation and identification of a new element ’ No. 103 on the atomic scale. (1:8)

General Motors Corporation indicted on charges of using its vast financial power to suppress competition and to capture more than 84 per cent of the nation’s locomotive business. G.M. denied its guilt and said it would establish this at the trial. (1:4)

Russia’s astronaut testing was veiled in secrecy. (Page 14)

Berle sees economic crisis in Latin America. (Page 9)

Presidency fight is stirring Finland. (Page 10)

U.S. to move to drop Powell tax case today. (Page 1)

Income tax returns here at least equal to 1960. (Page 25)

Milliners take their hats off to First Lady. (Page 40)

I.B.M.’s sales and earnings set new high. (Page 47)

Treasury sells 1-year bills at average 2,827. (Page 47)

Private utilities plan huge power grid. (Page 47)

Krock discusses significance of Soviet feat. (Page 34)

April 14, 1961

Chancellor Adenauer joined in a pledge yesterday to strengthen the military defenses of the West and to work for closer economic cooperation in the Atlantic Community. (1:1)

The British Prime Minister disclosed to Commons that the two leaders, Kennedy-Macmillan, regarded the Soviet attitude toward nuclear test ban negotiations and the United Nations as a key to Moscow’s desire to improve relations. (1:2-3)

The General Assembly condemned ’ 95 to 1 ’ South Africa’s racial discrimination and called on U.N. members to consider taking "separate and collective" action to halt it. Only Portugal was opposed. (1:2)

Premier Salazar took over the Defense Ministry in a Cabinet shuffle because of anti-white unrest in the African territory of Angola. (1:2)

In Cuba, Dr. Juan Orta, former head of what had been the Office of the Premier, has taken asylum in the Venezuelan Embassy. His difficulties were over Communist influence. (1:1)

In advance of more specific recommendations President Kennedy gave Congress a general outline of his ideas on improving Federal regulatory agencies ’ he wants strong chairmen who write their own opinions. Emergency measures needed for the Federal Power Commission because of the "incredible back-log" of cases involving natural gas prices and job-producing pipeline construction. (1:8)

On the President’s controversial aid-to-education program, the Welfare Department study shows that 132 Congressmen who voted against last year’s bill represent so-called impacted areas that received nearly $109,400,000 in special Federal help. (1:7)

Sampling of constituents by the lawmakers showed President had strengthened his personal popularity with the voters, he had generated little or no new support for his domestic programs. (1:6-7)

The Administration tightened its publicity controls over the Pentagon, censoring an Admiral’s speech and withholding usually available details on the tracking of the Soviet man-in-space shot. (9:3-4)

Today Major Gagarin will ride with Premier Khrushchev past tens of thousands of cheering Muscovites in the Soviet version of a ticker-tape parade. (10:2-3)

Sir Winston Churchill was marooned on a yacht in the Hudson. He expressed his delight over a personal invitation to visit the President, but he declined because he wanted to return home. (2:4)

Saud ostracized by brothers in Saudi Arabia. (Page 5)

Pushing of Birch unit aims is laid to general. (Page 1)

Walter sponsors new immigration proposals. (Page 11)

U.S. drops case against Representative Powell. (Page 18)

Birch leader gets mixed reaction on Coast. (Page 19)

Birch leader planning a third party. (Page 19)

Nixon setting up intensive speaking tour. (Page 60)

A.T.&T. explains satellite telephone goals. (Page 60)

Big bank merger is barred by state. (Page 39)

April 15, 1961

United States is getting impatient and has prodded the Soviet Union for an early reply to Western proposals for a verified cease-fire in Laos. Concern had been expressed over the delay, as well as over the continuing flow of Soviet arms to Laotian rebels and the continued armed participation of Communist North Vietnamese troops. (1:8)

In a Pan-American Day talk before the Council of the Organization of American States in Washington. President Kennedy called for a summer meeting of the Latin American finance ministers to create the machinery for his proposed Alliance for Progress. The only chair vacant was that of Cuba. (1:4)

In Havana, as a result of the destruction by fire of El Encanto, a department store, Washington was accused of having instigated and paid saboteurs. (1:6-7)

Portugal announced the arrest of a terrorist from South America. (7:1-2)

Persistent rumors were reaching Hong Kong of growing underground opposition to the Communist regime in China because of very strict food rationing and near-famine conditions. In Shanghai the opposition is reported "strong and well-organized." (1:7)

Federal Reserve Board reported new evidence that the low point of the recession had been reached: A slight rise in industrial production last month, breaking a nine-month decline. (1:1)

Labor Department officials estimated that Federal and state payments to the unemployed had reached a record monthly total of $450,000,000 in March, with the benefits currently making up 30 per cent of the wages and salaries lost by the nation’s 5,500,000 jobless. (11:2)

Congress received Administration proposals for postal rate increases. Prospects for Congressional approval are considered dim. (1:2)

A space agency official disclosed that the Administration had accelerated by one year ’ to 1969-70 ’ the timetable for landing a man on the moon. (3:1)

The Navy was having trouble firing Polaris missiles in underwater tests. (1:5)

Macmillan suggests 3 powers be nuclear "trustees." (Page 3)

U.S. tells Arabs they inject discord at U.N. (Page 4)

Gen. Walker denies spreading propaganda. (Page 22)

Historic antique table found in White House. (Page 11)

More travel to United States urged by Hodges. (Page 12)

I.L.A. threatens to quit world labor group. (Page 44)

Flight engineers spurn merger with pilots union. (Page 44)

Adoption of 12-month year for teachers urged. (Page 19)

Eurovision carries Gagarin’s welcome "live." (Page 45)

$70,000 is paid for English antique commode. (Page 13)

Flow of money into West Germany persists. (Page 24)

Agencies of U.S. differ on bank merger. (Page 24)

U.S. apportions Cuban share of sugar imports. (Page 32)

Sulzberger discusses atom test control parleys. (Page 20)

April 16, 1961

Bombers flown by Cubans came roaring out of a quiet dawn in Cuba yesterday, firing rockets and dropping explosives on three military air bases of the Castro regime. Premier Castro immediately ordered a general mobilization of the armed forces and civilian militiamen throughout the island. (1:8)

One of the pilots, who flew his crippled American-made B-26 to Miami and asked for asylum, said the attack had been made earlier than planned because of a suspected betrayal by a fellow pilot. The air strikes coincided with a major wave of sabotage and was part of a plan for softening up the Castro regime’s defenses to open the way for internal uprising and large-scale guerrilla landings. (1:7)

Asked if the raids were a last move before invasion, Dr. Jose Miro Cardona, the leaser of the Cuban exiles, said: "No invasion." (5:1-2)

The Castro Government moved swiftly in the United Nations, charging at a hastily called meeting of the General Assembly’s Political Committee that the raids were the "prologue to the large-scale invasion" planned by the United States and some Latin-American governments. (1:6)

Washington denied any knowledge of the aerial bombings except for news reports. The White House, in trying to get information, is hampered by not having diplomatic relations with Cuba. (1:5)

The Kennedy Administration was considering major revisions in military policy for NATO, with the United States the primary, if not the sole, custodian of nuclear weapons. (1:4)

Israel arrested one of Premier Ben-Gurion’s most trusted advisors on military planning, Lieut. Col. Israel Baer, as a spy for a Communist power. (1:2)

A key member of the Joint Atomic Energy Committee said budget cuts would result in a year’s delay in the first flight of a nuclear-powered rocket. (52:3)

The Navy’s first nuclear-powered guided-missile frigate, the Bainbridge, was launched at Quincy, Mass. (53:3)

American exchange students were having success in breaking down some of the professional and social barriers between them and their Soviet Union hosts. (1:4)

The Soviet graduate students here have been more impressed by American hospitality than by American academic standards. (1:3)

The way was cleared for a union within a union as the National Labor Relations Board ruled to allow staff employees of the International Ladies Garment Workers Union to organize over objections of their chief and the A.F.L.-C.I.O. (1:2)

Economic and political unease stirs Guatemala. (Page 2)

Sukarno legalizes only eight Indonesian parties. (Page 8)

Portugal delaying plans for Angola reforms. (Page 19)

Kennedy hails Africa on Freedom Day. (Page 28)

U.S. pins hopes on 20-nation economic unit. (Page 35)

Turin planning Italian centenary fete. (Page 36)

U.S. to ease plight of migrant farm workers. (Page 46)

Kennedy to name Negro as U.S. Attorney. (Page 68)

Neighborhood Clinic formed to combat bias. (Page 63)

April 17, 1961

Premier Castro, speaking at the funeral of seven victims, called the attacks a Cuban "Pearl Harbor" and said the United States was responsible. He called his revolution a "Socialist" one for the first time. (1:8)

At the United Nations, extra meetings were set for today on Cuba’s charges. (2:3)

The three Cuban fliers who landed in Florida after the bombings were granted political asylum, but their identity remained a tight secret. (1:7)

Authoritative sources said one bomber was a Cuban Air Force plane and had taken off from a Cuban field. (1:6-7)

Prince Souvanna Phouma landed in the Soviet capital just before the Russians gave the British a note believed to be the long-awaited reply on a Laotian truce. (1:8)

The court trying Adolf Eichmann ruled that Israel had jurisdiction over him. (1:5)

Chancellor Adenauer attended a barbecue picnic on Vice President Johnson’s ranch. (1:2-4)

A letter-writing campaign for and against the Federal education-aid bill and whether to include aid for church schools. (1:2)

Attempt to end the rift between the Democratic state organization and President Kennedy seen in an announcement by State Chairman Prendergast that he was rallying a drive for support of the Kennedy program. (1:4)

Personal income showed an increase in March. (Page 29)

Japanese call for trade rise with United States. (Page 43)

April 18, 1961

Both Premier Castro’s regime and the anti-Castro forces reported yesterday that rebel troops with air support had landed in Cuba on the swampy southern coast of Las Villas Province. The scope of the fighting was not revealed. The rebel command said merely that military equipment was landed successfully and that "some armed resistance" had be overcome. Arms and food were said to have reached near-by underground units. Cuba accused the United States of organizing the attack and the militia was called up. (1:8)

Guatemala denied the attack had been launched from Guatemalan bases. (14:7)

In Washington Secretary of State Rusk expressed sympathy for the anti-Castro forces, but he reemphasized that the United States would not intervene. United States material aid was said to be much less than originally planned. Reliable sources said no more then 300 men were involved in the landings. (1:6-7)

Moscow warned: "Cuba is not alone." (1:7)

At the United Nations, Cuba charged the attackers sprang from bases in Guatemala and Florida. Stevenson denied offensive launched from any part of this country. (1:5)

Soviet note on Laos did not satisfy the United States, however, the Russians were reported ready to let a cease fire precede an international conference. (1:2-3)

In Laos, royal army units routed from strong defensive positions by pro-communist rebel infantry. (3:4)

Antoine Gizenga’s rival regime recognized the authority of the central Government’s General Mobutu as Commander in Chief. The announcement said also that a cease fire had been ordered on both sides along the boarders of eastern and Equator Provinces. (1:4)

It has become clear that Adolf Eichmann’s defense would be that he was merely a cog in the Nazi machine. (1:3)

The Supreme Court struck down National Labor Relations Board rulings designed to bar compulsory union membership. (1:1)

The High Court also held privately operated restaurant in a publicly owned parking garage could not refuse to serve Negroes. (1:2)

The Army announced that Maj. Gen. Edwin A. Walker is relieved of command of his division in Germany pending investigation that he had been indoctrinating his troops with the ultra-conservative views of the John Birch Society. (1:5-6)

Laotian Leftists seize important stronghold. (Page 3)

Hammarskjöld appeals for Congo force funds. (Page 5)

U.S. Offers U.N. compromise on Arab refugees. (Page 12)

Greek Premier starts visits with Kennedy. (Page 19)

Housing violation here to be listed centrally. (Page 21)

Kennedy sends farm bill to Congress. (Page 22)

Senator Young facing Birch Society reprisal. (Page 24)

16 backed by Prendergast to get postal jobs. (Page 30)

April 19, 1961

President Kennedy icily warned the Soviet Union last night that the United States would tolerate no outside military intervention in Cuba. He answered Premier Khrushchev’s earlier threat to give Castro "all necessary aid." (1:4)

The forces of Premier Castro, meanwhile have apparently mounted a major counter-offensive with Soviet-built tanks and MIG jet fighter planes to dislodge the invaders from their narrow beachhead on the southern coast of Cuba. (1:3)

At the United Nations, the Soviet Union urged the General Assembly to request its members to extend assistance to the Castro regime if it should ask aid to repel "counter-revolutionaries." (1:4)

The Voice of America stepped up its Spanish language broadcasts to keep Latin America abreast of the Cuban news. (12:3)

The Soviet Union and Britain, meanwhile, handed the Soviet Union at Geneva the first complete draft treaty for a nuclear test ban and said they were prepared to sign immediately. (4:3)

The United States and Britain, meanwhile, handed the Soviet Union at Geneva the first complete draft treaty for a nuclear test ban and said they were prepared to sign immediately. (4:3)

The Kennedy Administration has undertaken to sell revisions in foreign aid ’ to Congress. It called in a small group of non-government experts to draft changes in the program. (21:2-3)

President Kennedy asked Congress to create a new Cabinet post. Secretary of Urban Affairs and Housing. (1:2-3)

The President will ask Congress to extend the life of the Civil Rights Commission. (1:1)

Former Secretary of Labor James P. Mitchell won the Republican nomination for governor in New Jersey’s primary. (1:1)

Soviet small arms helpful to Castro forces. (Page 12)

Monroe Doctrine still basic to U.S. policy. (Page 13)

500 students in Warsaw score U.S. on Cuba. (Page 17)

U.S. to pay half of U.N.’s Congo costs.

Ghana sending Ambassador to Gizenga regime. (Page 11)

McNamara defends cut-back on B-70 programs. (Page 19)

Study says faith cost Kennedy 1,500,000 votes. (Page 28)

Clothing union won’t boycott Japanese imports. (Page 1)

Four unions bolt maritime federation. (Page 77)

Elderly cheer medical care proponents. (Page 41)

First Lady names advisory fine arts unit. (Page 42)

Trip to Soviet Union by U.S. fives postponed. (Page 49)

Sulzberger discusses training of Guerilla units.

"The great revolution in the history of man, past, present, and future, is the revolution of those determined to be free." ’ President Kennedy in a message to Premier Khrushchev. (1:7)

April 20, 1961

Premier Castro early this morning said Cuba had "completely defeated" the rebel forces that had invaded the island. What had been represented yesterday as a successful rebel link-up with Escambray guerrillas turned out to be a defensive merger after abandonment by the invaders of their beachhead on Cuba’s southern coast under the pressure of the Government offensive. (1:8; Texts, page 10)

With the rebel landing has come the unleashing of the full power of the police state against a terrified Cuban populace. (1:6-7)

Two Americans died before a Cuban firing squad along with seven Cubans as unverifiable reports reached Miami of mass arrests of American citizens in Havana. (1:5)

The executions drew an immediate condemnation and strong protest from President Kennedy. He called off a trip to see week-end maneuvers off Florida and to summon a meeting of the National Security Council Saturday morning. He also called his full Cabinet to the White House this morning. (1:7)

All news of the stern Kennedy reply to Premier Khrushchev’s pledge of aid to Havana was withheld from the Soviet people. Instead charges of American complicity in the invasion. These were echoed throughout Communist China (11:7-8) and were the basis for wild pro-Cuban demonstrations by Left-Wing groups around the world. (12:3) Presidents Nasser of the U.A.R. and Tito of Yugoslavia joined in pledging "all available measures" to help Premier Castro. (13:4)

Worried that Moscow might set aside a Laotian solution over the Cuban crisis, Britain instructed her Ambassador to press the Kremlin for a join appeal today for a cease-fire in the Southeast Asian Kingdom.

Portuguese reinforcements rushed into action in northern Angola, their number swelled with terrorists from the Congo, has seized a vast corridor stretching to the Congo Republic. (1:6)

The Senate cleared minimum wage bill, defeating amendment by the surprisingly comfortable margin of 56 to 39. The Kennedy victory was achieved through a coalition of Administration Democrats and liberal Republicans. (1:1)

In unity among House Democrats, a bill to create seventy new Federal Judgeships breezed through, 336 to 76. The bill must now be reconciled with a Senate version. (1:2)

Labor Secretary Goldberg to set up today an Office of Automation and Manpower to deal with hard-core unemployment through guidance and retraining. (1:2-3)

Brazilian press assails U.S. Cuba policy. (Page 12)

Chiefs of Argentina and Brazil to meet today. (Page 12)

Britain, in U.N. backs plan for O.A.S. action. (Page 23)

Assembly backs Mongolia and Mauritania for U.N. (Page 3)

Israel walks out of talks of armistice group. (Page 16)

Two law deans named to civil rights panel. (Page1)

Salinger defends record on freeing information. (Page 9)

High court asked to review reapportionment. (Page 25)

R.E.A. chief pledges aid to power co-ops. (Page 27)

Curran fears harm in sea unions’ walkout. (Page 66)

Satellite finds new data on solar winds. (Page 8)

Kennedy doctor urges relief from chronic pain. (Page 23)

F.C.C. approves stereophonic F.M.

Middleburg hunts set pace for entertaining. (Page 38)

Tax Incentives seen raising U.S. exports. (Page 47)

Krock discusses unintentional assist by Mr. K. (Page 32)

April 21, 1961

President Kennedy issued a somber warning that Washington’s patience was "not inexhaustible" and that it did not intend to abandon Cuba to communism. He did indicate for the first time that armed intervention was possible if this country’s own security interests were being endangered. (1:8)

In Havana, twelve more persons were executed, bringing the total this week to twenty-one. (1:5)

Arrests also continued in the Cuban capital, with the Swiss Embassy reporting eighteen Americans taken prisoner. (1:5)

The British Navy ordered two warships to prepare to go to Cuba to protect the interest of Britons there if necessary. (1:4)

The setback to the Cuban rebels was recognized as strengthening Premier Castro and casting Premier Khrushchev as protector of small nations. (1:6-7)

Nehru accused Washington of having encouraged an invasion of Cuba. (5:1)

At the United Nations, a seven-power Latin-American proposal to refer the Cuban dispute to the Organization of American States was endorsed by five nations and received unofficial United State backing. (1:6)

It was learned at the U.N. that Washington was considering establishing diplomat relations with Outer Mongolia and would seek to open an embassy there to determine whether the country is an independent state. (1:7)

Former Premier Menderes and former President Bayar of Turkey were sentenced to death for violating the Constitution in using force to curb an opposition leader. No execution date was set. (1:2)

President Kennedy offered a controversial tax program that would give a $1,700,000,000 saving to businesses investing in new plan equipment and would tighten taxation on Expense account spending, dividends and interest, and businesses and move starts operating overseas. (1:1)

Congress was told by Navy Secretary and the Chief of Naval Operations that they believed they had eradicated plaguing the firing of Polaris missiles from submarines. (1:2)

American business leaders were told by Henry Ford 2nd to "keep their houses in order." (1:3-4)

Acheson confers with de Gaulle on crisis policies. (Page 11)

Moscow puts off accord on Laos cease-fire. (Page 11)

Free Tanganyika Cameroons approved in U. N. (Page 13)

Toynbee says news is controlled. (Page 16)

Jacobson urges enlarged Monetary Fund. (Page 47)

Gross national product declined in quarter. (Page 47)

U. S. basketball teams leave for Soviet Union. (Page 43)

Henry Ford 2nd, business executive of principle. (Page 18)

Reston reviews Kennedy’s Cuban moves. (Page 32)

April 22, 1961

In continuing effort by President Kennedy to assure national unity on policies that risk armed conflict, he is to confer today on the Cuban situation with former President Eisenhower. Mr. Kennedy told the nation at his news conference that a decade of unrelenting effort would be required to check the advance of communism. (1, Col. 1; text, 8)

Support for the President’s strong stand on Cuba reflected in messages to the White House ’ some urging war to eliminate the Communist threat ninety miles from Florida. Some volunteered for service; mothers said they were willing to accept the risks. (7:1-2)

Most of Latin America appeared to be lining up with Washington. But in Mexico City, pro-Castro march on the National Palace. In New York, anti-Castro Cubans marched across midtown and picketed the Soviet Mission to the U.N. (6:5)

The Cuban Government theme being that "superior" Soviet weapons had frightened off a full-scale invasion. (2:5)

A tank photographed on a Cuban beach and said to be American by Cuban officials was identified as Russian. (1:2)

As the rebel command analyzed its failure deep resentment was mounting against the United States and particularly the Central Intelligence Agency for what is widely regarded as monumental mismanagement of the rebel drive. (1:3)

A new uprising broke out in long-simmering Algeria. French troops, apparently in another attempt to block negotiations on the Moslem rebellion, took control of the capital city of Algiers. No immediate sign that the revolt would spread to France. A similar uprising in May, 1958 brought the end of the Fourth Republic and the return of President de Gaulle to power. (1:8)

President Kennedy said if Moscow persisted in demanding a three-party administration of nuclear inspections, the chances for a treaty were doomed. (13:4)

The Peace Corps’ initial project would be to help local technicians map and build badly needed roads in Tanganyika. (1:6-7)

The President disclosed that he had ordered a review to determine in what areas the United States could take the lead in the space race. (1:4)

A French radio correspondent just back from Moscow said the first space man was the son of the Ilyushin aircraft designer, who made the flight earlier, but was now in a hospital. (9:6)

U.N. unit rejects Latin’s plan on Cuba. (1)

Nixon gives backing to Kennedy on Cuba. (9)

Arabs defeated in U.N. on property in Israel. (12)

President denies link of fliers’ release to Russians. (14)

President welcomes G.O.P. automation studies. (52)

Pilot of x-15 sets 4,140 m.p.h. speed record. (13)

April 23, 1961

Early-morning Right-wing uprising in Algeria saw Foreign Legion troops seize control of Algiers and then Oran. To block President de Gaulle’s plan of independence for Algeria. The President’s top military and civilian representatives in the North African territory seized and punishment promised to all furthering the "abandonment" of Algeria, Paris announced, Gen. Maurice Challe and three other retired French generals who led the revolt would be court-martialed. (1, Col. 8)

The Castro regime warned that there would be "no mercy" for those who had attacked Cuba. It threatened new invaders with the "rockets of the Soviet Union." (1:3)

General Eisenhower urged the nation to support the President in his foreign policy decisions. (1:1)

Premier Khrushchev attacked Washington’s role in the Cuban situation, but said that Moscow would nevertheless continue to seek a broad agreement with the United States on world issues. (1:2-3)

United Nations delegates ended the longest General Assembly session in history. They approved a $100,000,000 authorization for military operations in the Congo. The Assembly turned to Cuba, and approved a watered-down call for an end to her dispute with Washington. (1:5)

President Kennedy appointed Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor, former Army Chief of Staff, to review United States intelligence and paramilitary and guerrilla warfare capabilities. General Taylor retired from the Army in self-proclaimed "frustration" over the Eisenhower Administration’s refusal to adopt his views on limited warfare requirements. (1:2)

Egyptians hail Kennedy’s plan to save ruins. (5)

Army in Algeria in undisguised mutiny. (2)

Paris moves to bar coup’s spread to France. (3)

French Rightists confined in Spain. (3)

State Department deplores coup in Algeria. (3)

Uruguayans protest against U.S. over Cuba. (21)

April 24, 1961

Premier Debre went before the French people on television yesterday and warned of imminent air invasion by mutinous Right-wing troops from Algeria. He called for a mass rising of the civilian population to resist it. President de Gaulle put on his general’s uniform and assumed dictatorial powers to meet the rapidly deteriorating situation. (1, Col. 8; texts, 3)

General de Gaulle applied for the first time the best-known and most controversial constitutional provision of the Fifth Republic. The French Left, which had been the most vocal in opposition to the provision, is now rallying to him in defense of democracy. (3:5)

Premier Castro warned that clemency for the 458 rebel prisoners hinged on the end of United States aid. (1:1)

President Kennedy asked his brother, the Attorney General, to help General Taylor investigate the Central Intelligence Agency’s role in the abortive uprising as well as in other aspects of the country’s secret defense activities. The Attorney General before joining the Cabinet, helped investigate Communist and other subversive activities. (1:2)

To avoid a Democratic-Republican fight over the Cuban failure, the President has invited Governor Rockefeller to Washington tomorrow to discuss the matter. A similar report will be given to former President Truman tomorrow in Independence, Mo., by Vice President Johnson. (10:1)

The Administration’s program faces another stiff test this week, as fiscal conservatives in the House try to block the Senate-approved depressed-areas bill because of its provision for financing without annual appropriations. (1:4)

The annual Press Week depicted the American mood to be a mixture of relief over improving economic conditions and concern over the deteriorating world situation. (1:3)

The foreign tourists ’ was the subject of a survey that found widespread interest but little concrete preparation for the hoped-for influx in the new Visit U.S.A. program. (1:3-4)

Mayor Wagner received a pledge of support for a third-term bid from the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. (1:1)

Sukarno visit poses challenge for Kennedy. (6)

Louisiana County votes to close schools. (22)

Negroes show gains in job status in South. (23)

Goldberg would curb use of Mexican farmhands. (24)

Customs chief seeks to ease debarkation here. (58)

Red tape cut for South Pacific air tourist. (58)

U.S. men’s five triumphs in Moscow, 78 to 68. (42)

April 25, 1961

Using emergency dictatorial powers, President de Gaulle clamped a total air and sea blockade on mutinous French forces in Algeria as France remained on alert against invasion. Algeria, which obtains most of its vital imports from France was faced with a complete shut-off of supplies, mail and funds. Expressions of support poured into the Elysee Palace from President Kennedy and other Western statesmen. (1, Col. 8)

In Tunis, the Algerian Nationalists appealed to all to aid General de Gaulle’s fight against the revolt. This new-found unity was considered a step toward later French-Algerian cooperation. (1:5)

The Administration was considering whether to impost a total embargo on United States trade with Cuba. (1:4)

Anti-Castro Cubans said the arrests following their abortive landing had crushed the underground for a long time to come. (10:1)

In central Algeria, French scientists exploded the fourth in a series of atomic bomb tests. (1:7-8)

Wider role for Secret Service is urged. (20)

Ribicoff challenged to debate by A.M.A. (20)

Virginia high court upholds sit-in convictions. (36)

Yields on Treasury bills show declines. (52)

U.S. defeats Soviet five, 84-81, in Moscow. (44)

April 26, 1961

The French Army mutiny in Algeria collapsed shortly after last midnight with its leaders apparently in flight. Forces loyal to President de Gaulle moved back into the city. Loyal forces had retaken Constantine and Oran earlier in the day. (1, Col. 8)

North Africans in Tunis welcomed with deep satisfaction the news that the Algiers mutiny had collapsed. Peace talks between the nationalists and the French Government could now begin virtually as soon as President de Gaulle gave the signal. (1:5)

After an hour-long meeting with President Kennedy at the White House, Governor Rockefeller called the situation in Cuba a serious threat to the security of the United States. He urged all Americans to support the President in whatever action was needed to meet it. (1:6)

Official sources acknowledged that on the day of the landings of the anti-Castro forces in Cuba, members of the Cuban Revolutionary Council were kept incommunicado by the Central Intelligence Agency. The action was called a security measure. (1:7)

The Laotian Government and the Left-wing rebels in Laos agreed to meet to arrange a cease-fire. (1:4)

Despite a pick-up in business activity, two-thirds of the nation’s 150 major industrial centers still showed "substantial" unemployment, 6 per cent or more the work forces in these areas were unemployed. (1:1)

At Cape Canaveral, Fla., an Atlas rocketing an unmanned Mercury capsule toward orbit veered off course and was destroyed. (1:8)

Soviet and U.S. clash in U.N. on Cuba. (6)

U.S. urges U.N. to form a peace corps. (13)

Pilots’ union protests over 2-man crews. (78)

Seamen’s unions split on organizing activities. (78)

U.S. Steel’s earnings fell sharply in quarter. (51)

April 27, 1961

Gone from Paris streets were the tanks and armored cars, the Army trucks and police vans, and the buses that were to have been used to block the advance of invading paratroopers from Algeria. The French Government put the rebel leader, former Gen. Maurice Challe, behind bars and served notice that it would seek possibly the death penalty for leaders of the four-day Army mutiny in the North African territory. (1, Col. 8)

Algiers was being patrolled by heavily armed security forces and tanks. A 9 P.M. curfew was in affect. (10:3)

President Tshombe of Katanga Province and several of his aides were seized by Congolese soldiers as they boarded a plan to return to Elizabethville after a conference in Coquilhatville. Tshombe had accused central Communist subversion in the hemisphere. (1:6-7)

Latin-American Ambassadors briefed on the Administration’s thinking on Cuba and that United States missions instructed to sound out their governments on taking collective action against the Castro regime and Communist subversion in the hemisphere. (1:6-7)

United States diplomats prepared for the expected Geneva conference on Laos. It was evident that the supplying of rival Laotian forces by Washington and Moscow would probably continue even though a verified cease-fire becomes effective. (1:7)

The Justice Department asked the Federal courts to force the reopening of public schools in Prince Edward County, Va. For two years whites there have attended a private system and Negroes have had no schools. (1:1)

The President’s bill providing Federal loans to areas of chronic unemployment was on its way to his desk for signature after clearing the House by a margin of thirty Republican votes. (1:4)

For the fifth month the Consumer Price Index remained steady. (1:1)

President Kennedy’s visit to the city to address the publisher’s convention let to speculation that he might use the occasion to try to end the bitter warfare within the Democratic Party there. (1:3-4)

"Containerization" handling of mail begun. (43)

Upswing continues in sales of new autos. (28)

Electric power industry sights 1961 gains. (28)

Dr. Harold Clayton Urey, the solar theorist. (42)

April 28, 1961

Laos briefing by President Kennedy of Congressional leaders of both parties. Before the briefing the President held a conference with the National Security Council. Both meetings dealt with counter measures if Communist-backed rebels in Laos continue fighting. (1, Col. 8)

Republicans opened up on the Kennedy Administration for its handling of the Cuban situation. Senator Morton called the abortive rebel landings a "disastrous" miscalculation. (2:5)

President Tshombe of Katanga Province remained a virtual prisoner of Congolese soldiers at Coquilhatville. (1:7)

In Sierra Leone independence celebrations by the former British colony. (4:5)

President Kennedy sent Congress a special message proposing a major overhaul and modernization of conflict-of-interest laws affecting executive and independent agency officials and employees. (1:1, Test, 16)

He also sent his first two reorganization plans for the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Federal Communications Commission. (1:2-3)

The S.E.C. began prosecution of two members of the American Stock Exchange ’ Gerard A. Re and his son, Gerald F. Re, for an alleged multi-million-dollar manipulation that victimized leading names in Wall Street, politics and entertainment. (1:2-3)

Walter Reuther proposed a flexible wage-and-hour law for reduced hours but full pay in periods of serious unemployment. A 1 per cent levy on corporate payrolls to build up a national work-week adjustment fund. (1:2)

President Kennedy flew into town for an address to the nation’s publishers urged the press to prevent the unauthorized disclosure of news helpful to communism. He said the use of wartime measures was justified by the nature of Communist "cold-war" tactics and their threat to national security. (1:5; Text. 14)

Rusk resists bit for closer tie to CENTO. (3)

New Polish hostility imperils United States aid. (6)

De Sapio, Prendergast, Powell attack Liberals. (1)

Kennedy regrets snub to African envoy. (16)

Democrats seek action this year on aged care. (18)

Astronomical satellite put into orbit by U.S. (1)

Vanguard of migrant workers arrives in Jersey. (33)

Russian Church asks entry in world council. (32)

Printers return to work in Times dispute. (32)

Film industry weighs Kennedy tax proposals. (24)

"West Side Story" seeks U.S. subsidy. (26)

Administration ends interest rate ceiling. (43)

U.S. gold stock takes first dip in nine weeks. (43)

April 29, 1961

As the Laotian Government’s proposed deadline for a cease-fire passed yesterday without a halt in the fighting, President Kennedy to meet with his National Security Council. Mr. Kennedy is returning to Washington early today from a speaking engagement in Chicago. (1, Col. 8)

A speedy cease-fire termed most essential by India and Canada at the reconvening of the International Control Commission for Laos. Poland, the other commission member, indicated little concern that it might still be "a few days" away. (2:1)

The State Department rebuffed suggestions from Havana that the two Governments negotiate their differences. While trade and economic matters might be negotiable, communism in this hemisphere was not. (1:5)

The Pentagon will be asked to take over new responsibilities in the fields of subversive activities and civil defense. C.I.A. would yield some of its operational functions, such as the planning of aid in the Cuban rebels’ recent landing. (1:4)

Six Belgian advisers to President Tshombe of Katanga were arrested by the United Nations which acted at the request of President Kasavubu and were flown to Leopoldville. The prisoners will be interrogated and returned to Belgium. (1:6)

President Kennedy told 5,000 Democrats at a $100-a-plate dinner that this country could defend the freedom only of those who were determined to be free and were willing to help themselves. (1:1)

The Justice Department has called another Federal grand jury in Philadelphia to hear new evidence of price-fixing and bid-rigging in the electrical industry. (1:6-7)

The Mercury space capsule that next week will take a man aloft underwent its final and most severe test. (1:2)

President Kennedy ended whirlwind, overnight stay in the city. (17:3)

A mock nuclear attack in the eighth national Civil Defense drill. The control center here was in Times Square. (1:3)

British control is Singapore election issue. (10)

U.S. sues Louisiana over Negro voting rights. (4)

G.E. forms company for satellite communications. (11)

Control eyes Norfolk & Western merger. (26)

U.S. men and women set back Soviet quintets. (16)

April 30, 1961

A NATO airlift that would have sent 6,000 troops from the United States to West Germany has been called off. (1, Col. 8)

Attack in central Laos by the Communist-led rebels, despite a new Government bid for a truce. (1:6-7)

Grave concern voiced by Prime Minister Nehru of India in a letter to Mr. Kennedy. (2:3)

Cuba prepared to celebrate May Day under the "banners of socialism." (1:4)

Shortly after noon came the end of the first 100 days of the Kennedy Presidency ’ the period he had said in the campaign would be "the crucial days" of a new Administration. There is broad agreement that he has done better than expected in Congress, but in foreign policy, after a promising start, has had severe setbacks. (1:2-3)

The deficit in the international balance of payments, for the first quarter of the year is now placed at an annual rate of $1,000,000,000, in sharp contrast with almost $4,000,000,000 in the closing months of 1960. The unexpected elements are an inflow of long-term funds and a gain in exports. (1:1)

In a move to save up to $100,000 in official funds annually, the Administration has prohibited the use of Federal money for July Fourth parties traditionally given by United States embassies for Americans abroad. The savings will be used to increase expense funds to career ambassadors and other diplomats serving major posts previously held by wealthy political appointees. (1:2-3)

Labor Secretary Goldberg made a sharp attack on private clubs in the country that practice bias. He signaled out the Metropolitan Club in Washington for barring Negro envoys. (1:2)

Singapore elects exponent of independence. (4)

Nonwhites plan general strike in South Africa. (9)

Brazil weighs policy on U.S.-Cuba dispute. (19)

Moroccans cool to United States over Cuba. (20)

Yugoslav-Brazilian trade pact is initialed. (23)

U.S. and Europe rush aid for Brazil. (25)

London arrests 826 in nuclear sitdown. (28)

All American Indians to join in parley on goals. (71)

Nashville tests integration of downtown theatres. (72)