1-7 | 8-14 | 15-21 | 22-31

March 1, 1961

President Kasavubu of the Congo, who bitterly attacked the United Nations, Monday, told G. Mennen Williams, U. S. Assistant Secretary of State, that he would always be willing to cooperate with the U.N. provided that its officials worked with the Leopoldville Government. (1:5-7)

The Soviet Union ended speculation that Premier Khrushchev might head its delegation to the U.N. General Assembly session opening next Tuesday, and seek an initial meeting with President Kennedy. Foreign Minister Gromyko would lead the delegation. (1:4)

President Kennedy asked Congress to levy higher taxes on the trucking industry to complete, by 1972, the $37,000,000,000 interstate super-highway system. (1:1 Text, pg. 16)

Secretary of State Dean Rusk described as "highly inaccurate" a newspaper report that suggested he favored sharp restriction on the role of nuclear weapons in war and diplomacy. (1:5)

The Army chief of intelligence told a close House Committee meeting that long-range Aircraft rather than missiles constituted the main Soviet instrument for inter-continental attack. (6:4)

Teamsters union bars strikes at defense sites. (pg. 6)

"JFK ’ Report No. 1" is presented on TV. (pg 67)

U. S. to open trade centers overseas. (pg. 43)

March 2, 1961

Placing the United States squarely in the ranks of anti-colonialism in Africa, President Kennedy said yesterday at his news conference that Africa should belong to the people who feel that they are Africans. (1:5)

The President said that Chancellor Adenauer of West Germany had accepted his invitation to visit Washington on April 12 and 13. He said also that the West German Government had "clearly accepted" two weeks ago the responsibility of making aid to under-developed nations available on a "continuing basis." (1:7)

The Peace Corps came into being with the signing of an Executive order creating a voluntary, unpaid service in the developing countries of the world. The corps was set up on a "temporary pilot basis," but Mr. Kennedy also sent to Congress a request for legislation to make it permanent. (1:8 Text, pg. 13)

Both parties have joined in the House to give quick passage to President Kennedy’s unemployment compensation plan. It was the first major bill to be passed by this session of the 87th Congress. The vote was 392 to 30, with only twenty-eight Republicans and two Democrats in opposition. (1:1)

The President said that the Pentagon, after a reappraisal of defense strategy, had recommended a "general strengthening of our armed forces." He noted that the Department’s recommendations included proposals for augmenting unconventional military forces. No decision has been reached, however, that would indicate a shift from reliance on nuclear weapons, the President declared. (1:4 Text, page 12.)

Executive order planned on job discrimination. (pg. 1)

President backs 5-star rank for Eisenhower. (pg. 1)

Congress inquiry into Salk vaccine is asked. (pg. 28)

March 3, 1961

Washington informed the Chinese Nationalist Government on Taiwan that it opposed the presence of Nationalist "irregulars" in Laos and Burma. Officials said the United States would help encourage and assist in relocating the Chinese troops there. (1:6-7)

In the Congo a massacre occurred as tension between the Congolese Government and the U.N. force reached a danger point in Leopoldville. (1:5)

At the U.N., Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld asked for 25,000 men and $135,000,000 to keep the world organization’s troops in the Congo for 1961. (1:6-7)

Adlai Stevenson warned Moscow to stay its ambition in Africa and stop undermining the organization or fact that "certainty that war follows when new empires thrust into the collapsing reins of the old." (1:7; Text, Pg. 2)

In the long efforts to reach agreement with the Soviet Union on another major issue ’ an atomic test ban -- the White House is reported to be ready to make a concession on the crucial item of on-site inspections. (1:8)

The hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church in this country has decided to oppose any school-aid legislation that fails to help children attending parochial schools. (1:4)

Cuban refugee professionals and technicians are being hired for Federal jobs in a move to alleviate their plight. (6-7:8)

March 4, 1961

President Kennedy and New Zealand’s Prime Minister, Keith J. Holyoake, expressed "deep concern" about Communist China’s "hostile and aggressive attitude." Peiping’s policy posed a "particular menace" for peace in Asia, Africa and Latin America. (1:7; Text, Page 3)

Ambassador Thompson disclosed in Moscow that he had asked to meet with the Soviet Premier to deliver a message from President Kennedy. The message expressed hope for an improvement of Soviet-United States relations. (1:6-7)

The two United States Air Force officers whose reconnaissance jet plane was shot down by a Soviet fighter last July 1 disclosed that their RB-47 fought back with two tail cannon. (1:5)

The United States and Brazil have "agreed to disagree" on policies toward Cuba. (1:4)

The White House announced the creation of a Presidential task force to determine national aviation goals for the Nineteen Sixties. The group will be headed by Frederick M. Glass of New York. (45:1-2)

The House Appropriations Committee refused to increase the lending authority of the Development Loan Fund by $150,000,000, despite a request by President Kennedy. (1:2-3)

The Appropriations Committee, charging poor Air Force management, called on the Pentagon to appoint "at once" a single head to carry out missiles base construction. (7:1)

U.S. to scrutinize Bolivian bid for emergency aid. (pg. 6)

Kennedy dedicates wildlife building. (pg. 8)

Edward R. Murrow tried and failed to suppress the showing in Britain of a controversial TV documentary on the plight of migrant labor in this country. (1:5-6)

Political unrest is spreading in Ecuador. (Page 9)

March 5, 1961

A meeting that is expected to deal largely with the Congo crisis was arranged between President Kennedy and President Nkrumah of Ghana. (19:1)

The President’s roving Ambassador, W. Averell Harriman, delivered a personal message from Mr.. Kennedy to President de Gaulle, expressing a desire for close personal and governmental relations but proposing no early meeting. (1:5-7)

The Deutsche mark was revalued upward by 5 per cent. Washington officials called the revaluation "a modest but useful step" toward correcting the West’s balance-of-payments problems. (2:3; Text, Pg. 2)

The White House announced the nomination of R. Sargent Shriver as director of the newly established Peace Corps. (1:5; Text, pg. 46)

In a campaign to lower interest rates, the Kennedy Administration is using a number of weapons, including Federal Reserve operations. (1:2-3)

Kennedy enjoying fast pace he sets for himself. (pg. 57)

Kennedy’s school-aid program faces broad attack. (pg. 58)

Unemployment found high among Negroes. (pg. 61)

March 6, 1961

The Sudanese garrison of the United Nations force at the Congo port of Matadi has withdrawn under a cease-fire after having been under attack for two days by Congolese Army troops. (1:8)

Congolese President Kasavubu will take part in the Congo "summit" talks. Antoine Gizenga had declared his intention to join other Congolese leaders at the conference. (1:7-8)

The Netherlands Government decided to increase the value of the Dutch guilder to keep in line with revaluation of the West German mark. (1:7)

President Kennedy outlined measures to ease the United States balance-of-payments problem by curtailing dollar spending of service men oversees and their dependents. (1:6-7)

President Kennedy said he hoped to use the Peace Corps concept in slum and depressed areas of the United States as well as in under-developed foreign countries. The President said that between 500 and 1,000 young men and women would be participating in a pilot project by the end of this year. (1:1)

Some of President Kennedy’s closest advisers report he has decided that the most effective help his administration can give the Negro at the present time is in the economic field. (1:2-3)

The President’s housing program, to be sent to Congress on Thursday, will show major shifts from the policy of the Eisenhower Administration. (1:2)

A drive for enlargement of the House of Representatives had apparently collapsed in the face of Speaker Sam Rayburn’s opposition. (20:6)

March 7, 1961

The United States has diverted four naval vessels from a goodwill visit to South Africa to Congolese waters to be available in case United Nations forces need assistance in the Congo. Diplomatic observers associated it with the surrender of a small United Nations force to Congolese troops in the port of Matadi. (1:8)

At the United Nations, the United States and the Soviet Union failed to reach agreement on efforts to eliminate debate on "cold war" items at the 15th General Assembly, which will be resume today. (1:6-7)

Moscow has said it will no longer recognize Mr.. Hammarskjöld. (4:2-4)

President Kennedy, in his first major civil rights action, created a new committee to fight racial discrimination and in hiring by the Government and its contractors. Mr.. Kennedy named Vice President Johnson as head of the new group and designated the Labor Department as its chief investigative arm. (1:1; Text, Page. 27)

The President’s Council of Economic Advisers told Congress that a noticeable "up-turn" in the nation’s economy might develop "in the next few months." (1:5; Text, pg. 22)

March 8, 1961

On the eve of a meeting in Washington between President Nkrumah and President Kennedy, the United States reversed an order that had sent a small Navy task force hurrying to Congolese waters. "Their presence is not required by the United Nations." (1:7)

The United States proposed putting off the disarmament debate in the resumed session of the General Assembly. (Text, pg. 3)

Premier Khrushchev summoned Ambassador Llewellyn E. Thompson, Jr. for a conference on East-West problems. (1:5)

The head of the Federal Reserve System entered a vigorous dissent from Administration conclusions on the cause and cure of widespread unemployment. He challenged the wisdom of trying to solve the problem through the use of fiscal, monetary and budget policies. (1:1)

Secretary of Labor Goldberg told a press conference that unemployment rose to 5,705,000 in February, the highest level since 1941. At the same time, over-all employment rose to 64,655,000 a record for February. (1:2-3)

Negro leaders and business men in Atlanta, GA., agreed to a formula for desegregation of lunch counters and other store facilities. (1:2)

An Air Force test pilot, Maj. Robert M. White, set an unofficial world speed record of 2,650 miles an hour in an X-15 rocket plane. (1:3-6)

Chile disturbed by U.S. policy in Cuba dispute. (pg. 9)

Foreign ship lines warned on U.S. laws. (pg. 66)

March 9, 1961

President Kennedy held his sixth press conference yesterday in Washington. He said hopes for an easing of tension in relations with Communist China had dimmed. The Chinese have refused to negotiate an exchange of newsmen and have rejected a new appeal to release imprisoned Americans. The rebuffs were accompanied by a demand the United States end its alleged "occupation" of Taiwan. (1:1)

The President said he would send Congress a special message seeking a ten-year program of aid for social and economic developments of the Americas. (1:2)

President Kennedy went to the airport and personally welcomed (under an umbrella) President Nkrumah of Ghana, the first chief of state to visit Washington during his administration. (1:48)

The United States nuclear submarine Patrick Henry sailed into Holy Loch, Scotland, with a full load of sixteen Polaris missiles and an underwater record of 66 days and 22 hours. (1:2-3)

The President cautioned Congress against risking defeat of his education program by inserting loans for parochial and private schools. Grants to private schools were clearly unconstitutional and said he felt that "across-the-board" loans fell in the same category. (1:8)

In his anti-recession drive, Mr. Kennedy said the speed-up of Federal procurement and construction would result in the placing of $660,000,000 in contracts by June 30 ’ or an actual added outlay of cash totaling $250,000,000. (1:6-7)

The President warned against boycotts of imported goods. He said "two can play this game" and "therefore unions in other countries can refuse to unload our goods." (1:7)

Two days of bitter Senate debate ended with the overwhelming approval of Charles M. Merriweather as director of the Export-Import Bank. (1:5)

Defense Secretary McNamara issued a direction giving the Air Force virtually exclusive responsibility for military space-development projects, including a plan to perfect "anti-satellites." (1:6-7)

March 10, 1961

The round table of Congolese leaders agreed to warn President Nkrumah of Ghana to cease what they termed his unwarranted interference in Congolese affairs and his assumption of the right to speak for all Africa. (1:1)

Secretary General Hammarskjöld rejected demands of the Leopoldville Government for equal authority with the U.N. over military facilities now held by the U.N. (2:1)

Secretary Rusk reasserted Washington’s determination to maintain its position in West Berlin, though he indicated that various elements of policy on Germany were under review for possible changes. (1:3)

The Russians launched another dog into orbit and then safely brought back the five-ton vehicle and its canine passenger. The dog and other biological subjects were under TV surveillance during the trip. (1:2-3)

President Kennedy sent Congress a special message, proposing an ambitious and complex housing program to spur the economy, revitalize cities and provide more residences for middle-income and low-income families. And he said he would soon propose a new Cabinet-level Department of Housing and Urban affairs to oversee the program. (1:8, Text, Page. 14)

In an effort to save the Kennedy school-aid program, key Congressional Democrats suggested that the program might be insulated from the church-state issue by bringing a separate loan bill before Congress. (1:7)

Truman drops in on Kennedy at the White House. (pg.1)

March 11, 1961

Secretary General Hammarskjöld would send a personal envoy to Brussels to press his demand that Belgium withdraw all her military and civilian nationals from the Congo. (3:5)

The Security Council agreed to debate the recent outbreaks in Portugal’s East African territory o Angola. (1:6-7)

Chancellor Adenauer expressed the concern that grows in West Germany that the Eichmann trial in Israel would produce a new wave of anti-German feeling throughout the world. (1:7)

In the House, approval was given to an Administration bill for $305,000,000 in emergency aid to needy children of long-unemployed parents. (1:2-3)

Tshombe seen emerging as top Congo leader. (pg. 3)

Herbert Hoover declines offer of Peace Corps post. (pg. 8)

Negroes to continue boycott in Atlanta. (pg. 21)

March 12, 1961

Talk of peace in Laos was drowned out by the sound of heavy gunfire. The attackers severed the main highway link between Vientiane and Luan Prabang. (1:8)

Peace talks on the Congo, meanwhile, continued among Congolese leaders. All were said to be agreed that President Kasavubu would be their titular head, since he is the only Congolese official recognized by the United Nations. (1:6)

At the U.N., Belgian sources said comprehensive measures had been taken to implement the Security Council resolution calling for the withdrawal of Belgian military and paramilitary personnel and civilian political advisers from the Congo. (17:1)

Willy Brandt, the West Berlin Mayor, arrived in New York on his way to see President Kennedy today. (1:7)

The President ordered the discontinuance of seventeen interdepartmental committees, all but one set up during the Eisenhower Administration for high-level policy making. (1:5)

Court ruling splits Little Rock school board. (pg. 34)

March 13, 1961

Eighteen Congolese leaders announced the establishment of a confederation of sovereign states, with Joseph Kasavubu as its President. They also sent a cablegram to the U.N. seeking annulment of the Security Council resolution authorizing the use of force to maintain peace in the Congo. (1:8, Text, pg. 2)

Algerian independence leaders were informed by President Nasser of the United Arab Republic that he favored new pace talks between them and President de Gaulle of France. The Cairo leader also said he would not oppose the peace efforts of President Bourguiba of Tunisia, with whom he had been at odds. (1:5)

In the wake of a military setback at the hands of pro-Communist rebels, the Right-Wing Laotian Government announced preparations for a new round of peace talks with the former neutralist Premier, Souvanna Phouma. (1:7)

West Germany said the Treasury Department’s description of it as a "useful but modest step" had worsened a situation that the revaluation was meant to help remedy. (1:6-7)

Yesterday began a week of decision for a major new theme of this Administration on its foreign aid program, being the more self-help the more aid. Recipients will be specifically encouraged to carry out land reforms, improve tax systems and adopt housing, sanitation and other such development measures. (1:4)

On the domestic economic situation, Commerce Secretary Hodges said "I think we’ve now start to move upward." He cited rising department store sales as one indication of an upswing. (1:2-3)

Quadros is indifferent to critics in Brazil. (pg. 7)

March 14, 1961

President Kennedy set forth a ten-point, ten-year economic and social development program for Latin America. The United States was prepared to give financial aid "if the countries of Latin America are ready to do their part." He called the future "full of peril, but bright with hope." (1:8, Text, Pg. 12)

State Department officials expressed "guarded hope" that a truly neutral Laos with a broadly based Government might emerge from the two days of negotiations between the Right-Wing regime of Premier Boun Oum and former Premier Souvanna Phouma. (1:8)

The director of the Food for Peace program proposed that the United States sell $8,000,000,000 worth of surplus food for foreign currencies in the next four years. In the first of a series of recommendations to President Kennedy, George McGovern, the director, called for immediate Congressional authorization for $2 billion. (1:7)

The White House announced that Lockheed had been selected to develop and build a high-speed long-range turbojet transport to carry troops or supplies around the world. Plans call for more than 100 of the jet transports at a cost of about $1 billion. (1:2-3)

Cyprus is elected member of Commonwealth. (pg. 6)

U.S. ahead in aid to under-developed countries. (pg. 7)

U.S. and Canada reviewing trade. (pg. 8)

Kennedy plea averts strike at union plant. (pg. 1)

Kennedy to request stockpile of polio vaccine. (pg. 37)

March 15, 1961

The U.S. and other governments friendly to the government of Laos are seriously considering sending increased military aid to the embattled authorities in Vientiane. Diplomatic sources in Washington said yesterday that increased aid became urgent in view of the large and continuing flow of arms from the Soviet bloc to the Laotian rebels. (1:8)

Mr. Kennedy asked Congress to appropriate promptly the full $500,000,000 it authorized last September for a Latin-American "social progress fund". In a special message, the President told Congress that the fund would represent the first step in his ten-year development program for the hemisphere. (1:6, Text, pg. 12)

The newly constituted Congo confederation demanded that the U.N. halt the reinforcement of the U.N. force in the Congo by Indian troops. (1:5)

The United States leadership of the Roman Catholic Church told a Senate hearing that loan provisions should be added to the Administration bill for grants for public elementary and secondary schools. No suggestions that a second measure confined to loans for parochial and other private schools "wouldn’t have much of a chance." (1:2, Text, pg. 26)

The appointment of Edward R. Murrow as director of the USIA was approved by the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. (20:3)

South Korea uneasy on eve of anniversary. (pg. 6)

March 16, 1961

South Africa’s Prime Minister Verwoord decided yesterday to leave the British Commonwealth of Nations, after South Africa becomes a republic May 31. Prime Minister Macmillan until the last, pressed for a compromise. (1:8)

Washington shifted its position at the U.N. on colonialism and joined Asian-African states and the Soviet Union in calling for the reforms in Portuguese Angola. (1:6-7)

The President promised support to the Government and people of Laos in the maintenance of their independence and neutrality. And in what was seen as a frank warning to Moscow, he blamed a small minority in Laos, "backed by personnel and supplies from outside," for the continuing crisis there. (1:5)

The French Government indicated that recent secret contacts with Algerian rebel leaders had paved the way for formal peace negotiations. (1:8)

President Kennedy told his news conference that he hoped the rate of unemployment, 6.8 per cent in February, could be cut to 4 per cent ’ the widely but not universally accepted standard of a satisfactory rate. (1:1)

The President achieved a modest victory when the Senate passed his $394,000,000 program of loans and grants to chronically depressed areas. (21:1)

The President, in what was obviously intended as a pointed reminder to the hierarchy of his own church, appealed for restraint in the debate over church-state aspects of Federal Aid to education. He suggested that otherwise, the country’s strength might be impaired by religious dissention. (1:2-3)

South Vietnam engaged in costly anti-Red war. (Page 1)

Brazil’s President affirms ties with U.S. (Page 8)

President asks enforcement clause in grain bill. (Page 17)

March 17, 1961

At the U.N., the American vote calling for reforms in Portuguese Angola, was seen as opening a gap within the Atlantic Alliance. (1:3-4) Lisbon viewed America’s vote with great apprehension. (4:5-6)

The senate ratified the United States membership in the Organization of Economic Development and Cooperation. (1:5)

Washington confirmed that it had been informed by Saudi Arabia that this country would not be allowed to use the strategically situated air base at Dhahran after April, 1962. (1:5-6)

The United States joined the U.N. General Assembly in denouncing the racial policies carried out in the territory mandated to South Africa by the League of Nations. (1:2)

President Kennedy threw the massive power of the White House behind his Federally financed emergency unemployment benefits bill and won a smashing 54-4 Senate victory. Earlier, by a two-vote margin, Administration forces defeated an anti-American amendment to the bill, and the President had won his first combat with conservative Senator Byrd. (1:8)

In a message to Congress, the President proposed that farm production and marketing programs be developed by farmers rather than by Congress. He outlined a plan whereby congress would exercise a veto power but would not initiate programs for wheat, cotton, corn or other commodities. If approved, the program would be one of the greatest departures from past practice that the President has yet proposed. (1:6)

The Government shortly will abandon its 11-year-old program of intercepting mail coming into the country from behind the Iron Curtain. It was felt such seizure now served no useful intelligence purpose. (1:7)

Impressive evidence that the recession is nearing if not touching its bottom was offered by a Federal Reserve report, which found that the eight-month downward trend in industrial production came to virtual halt in February. (1:7)

A Roman Catholic clergyman told Congress that the church claims no authority to compel Catholic Congressmen to support the hierarchy’s position in the fight. (1:2-5)

French-Algerian negotiations expected in 10 days. (Page 3)

Tshombe seeking a meeting with Gizenga. (Page 6)

U.S. will order full disclosure of identical bids. (Page 18)

March 18, 1961

The State Department announced that Secretary of State Rusk would be host today to Foreign Minister Gromyko at an informal luncheon session. The Soviet-American talks also were expected to touch on the crisis in Laos and the Congo and other questions of mutual interest. (1:6-7)

On Laos, Washington acknowledged that it had increased its military assistance to the Right-Wing regime in Vientiane and had sent additional technicians to help train the royal army. However, Washington said it had no intention of trying to match the Soviet effort gun for gun, bullet for bullet. In Vientiane, the Government said peace talks with former Premier Souvanna Phouma had ended in total failure. (1:7)

As series of anti-white uprisings in Angola by machete-wielding Africans that resulted in the killing and wounding a number of plantation settlers near the Congo border. In Lisbon, it was reported that terrorists from the Congo had raided northern areas of the Portuguese territory and killed twenty-eight whites, including women and children. (1:6-7)

Deputy Defense Secretary Gilpatric said that the Joint Chiefs of Staff had not been consulted as a body on the controversial decision to give the Air Force the major role in space. (1:1)

After his defeat by President Kennedy on unemployment compensation benefits, Senator Byrd canceled his Finance Committee’s hearings on five Kennedy nominees. And he left instructions with his staff that the word was "canceled" and not "postponed." (1:4)

The President made known his displeasure over the reported barring of a Negro woman delegate from equal housing at a Civil War Centennial celebration in Charleston, S.C. By a strange coincidence on history, the letter went to Lieut. Gen. U.S. Grand 3d. (1:4-5)

U.S. policy shift in U.N. approved by Kennedy. (Page 2)

U.S. to finish terminal at Dhahran base. (Page 3)

A.M.A. steps up fight on health care bill. (Page 7)

Federal court voids Negro vote curbs. (Page 8)

Irish envoy presents a gift to Kennedy. (Page 25)

March 19, 1961

Secretary of State Rusk and Foreign Minister Gromyko sat down together in Washington yesterday and got up five hours later after an "open and frank" discussion of problems of mutual interest. In a new and earnest bid for Moscow’s cooperation in Laos, Secretary Rusk warned that if the situation were permitted to continue on its present course it could produce a larger conflict. The latest effort of "quiet diplomacy" began with a luncheon in the Russian’s honor and ended with a joint statement expressing the hope that their talk would contribute to better understanding of each other’s policies. (1:8)

Antoine Gizenga, head of the pro-Lumumba Stanleyville regime in the Congo, was said to have rejected the proposal for a confederation of states and to have insisted that the Congo remain unitarian and indivisible in its present boundaries. (1:4)

The Chief of Staff of the Air Force, General White, assured Congress at an unusual Saturday hearing that the military was not seeking to take over civilian space projects. (1:1)

The White House announced that President Kennedy would send Congress a special message Tuesday on foreign aid ’ a message in which he is expected to depart form past programs and ask for $8,000,000,000 for a five-year plan of economic assistance. This would be to facilitate long-term, long-range aid that would not be hampered by the need to seek funds annually. He is also expected to call for a consolidation of all aid programs under a single agency. (1:2-3)

Spain accuses Moroccans of Saharan threat. (Page)

Algeria parley set for French resort. (Page 8)

U.S. forces seek friendship in Spain. (Page 14)

U.S. urged to lead NATO reorganization. (Page 16)

China-Soviet rift on Albania grows. (Page 27)

Cuba again seeks U.N. action against U.S. (Page 31)

U.S. assistance delayed by politics in Peru. (Page 32)

Harriman visit raises Indians hopes about U.S. (Page 35)

March 20, 1961

Secretary General Hammarskj’ld has extended the term of Rajeshwar Dayal, his controversial representative in the Congo "as long as he is available" a United Nations source reported yesterday. The decision was received in silence by the United States and other Western delegations, which are said to be concerned over Mr. Dayal’s strained relations with President Kasavubu of the Congo. (1:8)

In northern Angola, near the Congo border, Portuguese Army forces were reported moving to seal off a rebel-troubled district in advance of large-scale mopping-up operations. (1:6-7)

Premier Michel Debre hinted that France might insist on Partitioning Algeria if a vote there favored breaking all French ties. His warning came in the midst of preparations for official peace talks between France and the rebel Algerian Government, expected to begin toward the end of this month. (1:6-7)

The United States and British delegations are preparing for the resumption tomorrow of negotiations in Geneva for a nuclear testing ban with the impression that the Soviet Union, after two and a half years, is losing interest in an agreement isolated from general disarmament. (1:4-5)

President Kennedy faces a test in Congress this week as the House takes up his minimum wage bill. The coalition of Republicans and Southern Democrats says that it has the votes to substitute a scaled-down measure, and Administration forces concede they do not now have the votes to win. (1:4)

Soviet said to seek Western concessions by fraud. (Page 9)

A neutral Laos stressed by Rusk. (Page 10)

Frondizi party wins Argentine municipal elections. (Page 11)

March 21, 1961

The Kennedy Administration has resolved to face the risks of a test of wills with the Soviet Union rather than let Laos fall under Communist control. Reliable informants in Washington reported last night that President Kennedy is determined to take whatever steps are necessary to save Laos from Communist determination and to accept whatever risks are involved. The disclosure came after the President and some of his highest civil and military advisers had conferred at the White House. (1:8)

When the atomic test ban talks resume in Geneva today, the United States will offer concessions on some controversial issues but will stand fast on the key issue of inspection. The concessions will deal with Soviet inspection of atomic explosives to be used in this country’s seismic research program, the length of a voluntary, un-inspected moratorium on small underground weapons tests and testes in outer space. The three-power negotiations began in October, 1958. (1:7)

Sweeping constitutional changes were reported being prepared for the two large Portuguese African possessions of Angola and Mozambique. Angola and Mozambique, which is quiet, are to receive economic and administrative autonomy. (1:6-7)

Prime Minister Hendrik F. Verwoord received a highly emotional welcome on his arrival from London. However, demonstrations against his move were held in cities throughout the country. (1:4-7)

The Kennedy Administration will soon propose a Youth Conservation Corps of male teenagers to work on conservations projects across the nation. The corps would closely resemble the Civilian Conservation Corps of the Nineteen Thirties. (1:1)

Louisiana’s various efforts to block the desegregation of schools in New Orleans were held unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. (1:4)

Mobutu bars U.N. troops’ return to key ports. (Page 3)

Algeria rebels set team for French talks. (Page 8)

March 22, 1961

In a bitter hour-long statement, Mr. Gromyko again demanded Mr. Hammarskjöld's resignation calling him a "stooge" of Western colonialism. (1:8)

The United Nations Conciliation Commission reported, meanwhile, that the Congo was "on the verge of catastrophe." The commission recommended urgent measures, including the convening of a top-level meeting of Congolese leaders to formulate a new constitution for the country. (17:7-8)

In neighboring Angola, Portuguese officials said that "several thousand" armed African rebels in bands of fifty to 200 were still at large near the Congo boarder. (13:1)

The Kennedy Administration has decided on immediate steps to raise the military effectiveness of the Laotian Army in its fight against Communist-directed rebel forces. (1:5)

In Geneva, the Soviet Union put the future of the conferences on a treaty to ban nuclear tests in serious doubt. (1:6-7)

The United States has decided to propose to Western Europe and Japan next week that each industrialized country provide annual aid to under-developed countries amounting to 1 per cent of its gross national product. (1:4)

Senate and House conferees agreed on a compromise version of their differing bills to extend unemployment compensation payments for those who have exhausted regular benefits. (1:1)

President Kennedy said it was "quite possible" that the nation could enjoy an economic recovery this summer and still have an unemployment rate of 6 or 7 per cent. He called for proposals on such problems as hard-core unemployment and "sound wage and price" policy from his new labor-management committee. (1:2)

Portugal facing criticism by Brazil. (Page 3)

U.S. guerilla war experts training Vietnamese. (Page 8)

U.S. faces trial in U.N. of anti-colonial policy. (Page 14)

March 23, 1961

Informed sources said the Western powers would present a new peace plan on Laos to the Soviet Union today. It will reportedly urge an immediate cease fire and a prompt end to the flow of military supplies and personnel from outside. The plan would revive the International Control Commission for Laos, a proposal that represents a shift in the United States position. (1:8)

Soviet-American talks on reconciling rival disarmament resolutions continued at the U.N., with agreement being reached that negotiations should resume in Geneva, probably in August. Still unsettled was the question of other participants. (1:7)

Angola was the scene of violent reaction to Washington’s decision to back a United Nations call for reforms in that Portuguese territory. (1:7)

The neighboring Congo was facing grave economic problems that could mean financial bankruptcy. A U.N. survey recently warned that "uncontrollable" inflation might be imminent, and financial experts fear that unless at least $100,000,000 is pumped into the economy soon, the situation may become virtually "irretrievable." (1:7)

On Capitol Hill there was approval by both House and Senate of an emergency unemployment benefits bill - a priority item in the President’s anti-recession program. Mr. Kennedy is expected to sign it tomorrow, and the first checks should be available in early April for those jobless workers whose state payments have run out. (1:1)

The Senate also approved and the President signed a compromise version on an Administration measure to increase farm income and control a developing surplus in corn and feed grains. It provides increased price supports to farmers who make regulations of at least 20 per cent in acreage devoted to those grains. (16:4)

Mr. Kennedy signed into law the act of Congress restoring the five-star rank of General of the Army to his predecessor, Dwight D. Eisenhower. (15:5)

President Kennedy sent Congress a special message on foreign aid, which would shift the emphasis from mutual security to greater economic growth and stability of the poorer lands. Specifically, he is seeking the creation of a new agency to administer a five-year aid fund. (1:5)

March 24, 1961

In an unusually serious mood President Kennedy discussed the crisis in Southeast Asia at a nationally televised news conference yesterday. He warned that "no one should doubt our resolution" to preserve an independent, neutral Laos. (1:8)

He avoided direct response but it was reported that Washington was placing its latest type of military equipment at strategic depots for possible action in Laos by SEATO. (5:1)

Following telephone consultations with Secretary Rusk, the British Government called on the Soviet Union to join it in appealing to both sides in Laos for an immediate cease-fire. (1:6-7)

At the United Nations, the Portuguese delegation walked out of the General Assembly after the recent bloodshed in Angola was placed on the agenda by a 72 to 2 vote. (1:8)

The President again commented on the racial controversy over the Civil War commemoration in Charleston, S.C. (1:5-6)

The Kennedy Administration, through National Chairman Bailey, affirmed publicly for the first time its desire to replace New York’s Democratic leadership ’ namely Michael Prendergast and Carmine G. De Sapio. (1:2)

Harriman says Kennedy views impress Nehru. Page 4

City seeks broader power in investigations. Page 21

March 25, 1961

Washington awaited word from Moscow on the Western peace plan. President Kennedy was receiving strong support for his stand, both home and abroad. Reports from New Delhi that the Kennedy message was "helpful" and that the Indian leadership had promised to cooperate in any way he could. (1:1)

The possibility of British military involvement in Laos was acknowledged. (1:2-3)

The former neutralist Premier of Laos, Prince Souvanna Phouma, gave public backing to Western proposals. (3:1)

From Vientiane came word that the United States was sending sixteen more troop-carrying helicopters to Laos and that United States Marine technicians were establishing a repair base at Udorn, Thailand, thirty-five miles south of Vientiane. (2:2-3)

In a budget message the President indicated a $2,200,000,000 deficit this year and a larger on e next year. He insisted the deficits would not be of his making, but would be the result of the recession, mistaken estimates in the Eisenhower budge and "urgent" demands of national defense. (1:6-7)

In two other disagreements with Eisenhower policy, the Administration decided (1) to build the world’s largest atomic power plant by converting a plutonium-producing reactor at Hanford, Wash., and (2) to continue two technical approaches to building an atomic plane, rather than one approach. (1:4)

The Consumer Price Index rose slightly last month to equal the record level set in December. Medical insurance and food paced the rise. (1:7)

A Federal judge in Chicago agreed to dismiss spy charges against a Soviet U.N. employee, provided he go home. (1:4)

The State Department later disclosed that Secretary of State Rusk had made the recommendation in the interest of Soviet-American relations. Spokesmen denied the move was part of a "deal" involving the RB-47 fliers released by Moscow. (1:5)

Goldwater backs Kennedy on Laos. (Page 2)

Macmillan to seek "real unity" with U.S. (Page 3)

Galbraith favors eventual recognition of China. (Page 1)

March 26, 1961

The gravity with which President Kennedy views the growing Communist backed offensive in Laos was underscored yesterday. He flew to Florida for a hastily arranged meeting today with Prime Minister Macmillan, sent a personal message outlining his views to President de Gaulle and arranged to meet in Washington tomorrow with Foreign Minister Gromyko to receive a message from Premier Khrushchev. (1:8)

Survival of the International Control Commission for Laos seemed imminent as informed sources described as "not unfavorable" the initial Soviet reaction to new Western peace proposals. Prime Minister Nehru was in close touch with Moscow in an effort to convince the Russians of the urgency of a cease-fire and a revival of the commission. (1:6-7)

Laos’ former neutralist Premier, Prince Souvanna Phouma, was quoted as having said that the Kennedy policy on that Southeast Asian kingdom was "fundamentally different" from the Eisenhower policy and that "our objectives are much better understood now in Washington." (3:3)

President Kennedy met with Defense Secretary McNamara and Budget Director Bell to put the finishing touches on military budget revisions that are expected to dramatize the need for meeting "limited war" situations. Reversing a ten-year trend, the Administration will seek the first manpower increase since the Korean War. The President will ask Congress for up to $2,000,000,000 in new appropriations, with emphasis on ground weapons and airlift facilities for brush-fire warfare. (1:5)

The National Civil War Centennial Commission bowed to the President’s second appeal and agreed to avoid the segregated hotels in Charleston, S.C., and hold its annual meeting at the desegregated Charleston Naval Station. (1:4)

Peace Corps officials disclosed that 200,000 questionnaires would be sent out for prospective volunteers, starting tomorrow. The first to receive the six-page forms will be the 20,000 persons, mainly college students, who had indicated an interest to the White House, Peace Corps headquarters or through their Congressmen. (1:7)

On Capitol Hill, the Administration was pinning its hopes on the Senate to repair some of the damage done by a House coalition of Southern Democrats and Republicans to its minimum wage bill. (44:1)

The United States and the Soviet Union both took giant steps into space in preparation for manned flight. From Cape Canaveral, a 78-pound package of scientific instruments was fired into a wide-swinging earth orbit designed to take it 120,000 miles into space to chart safe paths for space travel. (1:2)

Soviet scientists launched into orbit and brought back safely another five-ton vehicle with a canine passenger. (1:3)

In open defiance of the Kennedy Administration, Michael H. Prendergast told the Democratic national chairman John H. Bailey in no uncertain terms that he would not resign his post as state chairman. (1:2)

SEATO foreign chiefs gather to act on Laos. (pg. 3)

U.S. seeks reforms in South Korean aid plan. (pg. 8)

Nasser alerts Africans on "imperialism." (pg. 18)

March 27, 1961

President Kennedy and Prime Minster Macmillan met for the first time yesterday in Key West, Fla., and in more than three hours of talks, reached "absolute agreement on all aspects" of a common policy to preserve a "truly neutral" Laos against the threats of Communist domination. They issued a joint appeal to the Soviet Union to make "a positive and constructive" reply to Western peace plans. (1:8; Text, pg. 3)

Secretary of State Rusk, speaking at the opening of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization’s conference, prepared the Allies for a United States request for joint armed assistance, if needed, to beleaguered Laos. (1:6-7)

Lord Home, London’s Foreign Secretary, voiced Britain’s evident determination to save Laos from Communist control. (1:6-7)

Virtually certain to be laid before the SEATO ministers in testimony from a wounded rebel prisoner that he was a member of a regular North Vietnamese unit operating Laotian territory. (2:3)

The President told a British television audience that neither of their countries would "have any difficulties" in the missile race with the Soviet Union if it were not for the fact the democracies would not strike first. He said "we always have to consider what we have left" with which to retaliate. (1:8)

The General Assembly’s Budgetary Committee prepared to take up today the most acute financial problem ever face by the U.N. ’ that of raising $120 million to maintain the Congo force this year. The crisis has been produced by Moscow’s refusal to pay its assessments for either the Congo or Suez forces. (1:7)

The Leopoldville Government said it was willing to "examine" a United Nations plan for replacing Belgian technicians in its administration. (1:5-6).

The Pentagon is scheduled to unveil by May a plan to merge Air Force fleets of fighter planes and transport airliners with Army paratrooper and reserve infantry units into a single command under an Army general. The project is part of the general shift in policy to concentrate on limited-war situations. (1:4)

Mr. Kennedy’s views that Federal loans to church schools would violate the Constitution was supported by the American Civil Liberties Union. (1:2)

Javits asks U.S. to send arms to Israel. (pg. 9)

France to consult with other groups on Algeria. (pg. 10)

Weaver to unify policies on housing elderly. (pg. 1)

March 28, 1961

President Kennedy and Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko met for almost an hour yesterday on the problems of Laos. Although the objectives of both sides appeared similar, no agreement on how the objectives could be achieved was produced. (1:8)

An official pronouncement in the Communist party newspaper Pravda threatened, however, that any military intervention in Laos by the United States or its allies would be "met with retaliatory force." (1:6)

The seven nations allied with the United States in the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization were expected to give speedy approval to such military intervention if peaceful approaches fail and the Laos and the Laos Government requests outside aid against the pro-Communist rebels. (1:6-7)

The U.N. showed that only four of the 99 member nations had paid any part of their shares in last year’s $48,500,000 cost of military operations in the Congo. The four were Australia, Ireland, the Netherlands and the United States. (2:3).

The long-awaited peace talks on Algeria will begin April 7 in Evian-les-Bains on the French side of the French-Swiss border. (1:4)

A mob of 20,000 Portuguese stoned the United States Embassy in Lisbon in a protest against the United States support for a U.N. inquiry into conditions in the Portuguese colony of Angola. (1:3-5)

President Kennedy will ask Congress to appropriate 10 per cent more than the Eisenhower Administration requested for the space program next year and almost twice as much as had been asked for Federal aid to airport construction. (1:1)

Conservative forces prepared to trim or defeat the Kennedy Administration’s bill to rehabilitate depressed areas. The measure, which was sent to the House floor, would provide $394,000,000 in loans and grants. (1:3)

Within the next few days, the space agency will attempt to launch an 82 pound satellite equipped with a special telescope to measure to previously undetectable gamma rays, which streak through the universe with the speed of light. (10:3)

March 29, 1961

President Kennedy briefed Democratic Congressional leaders on his meetings with Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko and Prime Minister Macmillan. (1:7)

Sources at the United Nations said France had declared she would not pay any part of the costs of the United Nations military operation in the Congo. (1:5)

President Kennedy made major revisions in the Eisenhower Administration’s last defense budget. Mr. Kennedy urged a speed-up in long-range missile strength but he cut back the B-70 supersonic bomber program and dropped the nuclear plane project. (1:1)

The President asked Congress for a $125,670,000 increase in the space agency’s budget to permit accelerated development of huge launching vehicles that would match or excel the weight-lifting capacity of Soviet rockets. (12:3)

Nine new Ambassadors won quick Senate approval without floor discussion or vote for the record. They included J. Kenneth Galbraith as Ambassador to India and Edwin O. Reischauer as Ambassador to Japan, both Harvard professors. (19:1)

Algerian rebels imply negotiations in Jeopardy. (Page 7)

U.S. sets controls in case of atom attack. (Page 14)

March 30, 1961

The Warsaw Pact Conference ended its second meeting amid reports that the Soviet Union might withdraw additional troops from member countries. (9:1)

Soviet-American agreement was reached at the United Nations to join in a recommendation that the disarmament debate be postponed until the next General Assembly session in September. The Kennedy Administration had been opposed to debate on the issue at the current session. (1:6-7)

Britain expected to announce, possibly today, that a check for $3,768,000 was en route from London to cover her share of the Congo operation last year. Canada was planning a similar payment. (1:4)

At Pretoria twenty-eight members of the African National Congress, on trial since 1956, were found not guilty of charges of high treason and were discharged. The judge said there was no evidence of Communist infiltration of the Congress, which was banned last year. (1:7)

Britain’s Colonial Secretary announced that Tanganyika would receive full internal self-government May 1 and become independent Dec. 28. (5:1)

The framework of Puerto Rico’s Operation Bootstrap was recommended by the United States to under-developed nations seeking industrialization. This was suggested by Teodoro Moscoso, director of the project in Puerto Rico since 1942. During the day, Mr. Moscoso was named by President Kennedy to be Ambassador to Venezuela. (1:5)

The President sent Congress a $3,190,000,000 omnibus housing bill, in which the major emphasis was on the improvement of the existing housing supply instead of new starts. (1:2-3)

Washingtonians finally received the right to vote and for the first time in more than 160 years will be able to help choose a President and Vice President in 1964. The century-long struggle ended in Topeka, when the Kansas Legislature became the necessary thirty-eighth state to ratify the Twenty-third Amendment to the Constitution. (1:2-3)

The Federal Communications Commission voted to make a formal inquiry to determine whether one of New York City’s seven commercial television channels could become a noncommercial educational outlet. The inquiry also would cover Los Angeles, the only other city with seven operative channels. Some smaller cities, with fewer channels, have educational stations. (1:5-6)

Kennedy and Swedish Premier urge stronger U.N. (Page 1)

Laos seen facing crisis even after peace. (Page 2)

U.S. asks controls for blasts in space. (Page 8)

Revenue service chief calls tax rate "too high." (Page 16)

U.S. moves to aid Negro sharecroppers. (Page 18)

March 31, 1961

A communiqué issued after the Warsaw Pact meeting indicated the conferees chief attention was focused on Europe and Germany rather than the crisis in Laos. The Communist powers said that West Germany was turning into "a major hotbed of war danger" and agreed on measures for the "further strengthening of their defense capacity." They made only indirect reference to Laos. (1:8)

Laos was discussed in New Delhi yesterday, as was the Congo situation, by Prime Minister Nehru and Secretary of State Rusk. (1:7)

With the fighting in Laos at a virtual standstill for the fifth day, expectations grew in Washington that Moscow would soon make its counter peace proposal. The Russians are not expected to agree to a formal cease-fire, but rather to a de facto truce. (2:1)

Washington came to the aid of the United Nations pledging a "sizeable" amount of extra cash for the costly Congo operation. (1:4)

At the U.N., Adlai E. Stevenson said he saw "no other solution" for the Congo except a federal system. He noted with implied approval that the Congolese leaders were "groping" for just such a solution. (1:5)

All fifty-two of the domestic military installations to be closed or curtailed for economy reasons under President Kennedy’s defense budget were identified by the Pentagon. Twenty-one bases abroad will be named later. (1:2-3)

Edwards Air Force Base in California, where test pilot Joseph A. Walker landed after flying the X-15 rocket plane to a record altitude of thirty-one miles. (1:3-4)

George S. McGovern, director of the Food-for-Peace program, proposed a dramatic expansion of the project into "an instrument of the nation’s foreign economic policy." He would convert the surplus food disposal plan into a workhorse for building up under-developed countries. (1:2-3)

President Kennedy announced selection of a bipartisan advisory council for the Peace Corps. Vice President Johnson will head the thirty-three members. (7:1)

U.S. cool on sanctions for South Africa. (Page 1)

British urge Prince to return to Laos. (Page 2)

French and Algerians confirm talks April 7. (Page 4)

Inquiry asked into rightist John Birch Society. (Page 10)

Kennedy puts off proposed shelter program. (Page 13)

Navy’s admirals to meet Secretary Connally. (Page 13)