1-7 | 8-14 | 15-21 | 22-31

May 1, 1961

Prospects for a cease-fire Laos improved yesterday; the pro-Communist Laotian rebel regime was said to be ready to meet with the Right-wing Government in a village that apparently lies between the two forces. (1:8)

President Kennedy flew back to the capital to discuss the Laotian situation with Secretary of State Rusk on the eve of another meeting of the National Security Council. The Administration had decided to increase by $41,000,000 the amount of military aid for South Vietnam. (1:6-7)

Also of continuing concern in Washington was the situation in Cuba. Officials said United States citizens still on the island had been advised by the State Department to leave in their own interest. (1:7)

In the midst of elaborate preparations for May Day celebrations throughout Cuba, the economic chief, Maj. Ernesto Guevara, said the Island’s economy "in this first Socialist revolution in America," would follow the patterns of the Communist countries. (3:1)

The Congo Government announced that President Tshombe of secessionist Katanga Province would be moved from detention in Coquilhatville to Leopoldville for an indefinite stay as part of the efforts to establish nation-wide sovereignty. (1:5)

With about thirty-five "undecided" Congressmen holding the balance of power, the House moved toward a second and probably final showdown Wednesday on the Administration’s plan to increase the minimum wage and extend coverage to millions of workers. The Senate had passed the Kennedy bill and a Senate-House conference is scheduled to report today a compromise that is expected to be similar to the measure that lost in the House by a single vote. (1:1)

The chairman of the F.C.C. warned that he would recommend restrictions if television stations began squeezing in too many commercials. (1:2)

Democratic organization leaders are putting pressure on Mayor Wagner to agree to refuse Liberal party endorsement unless his city-wide running mates also get it. Implied is a threat by De Sapio and others to run someone in opposition to Mr. Wagner in the Democratic primary. (1:4)

India fears U.S. intervention in Laos. (pg. 9)

Airlines to seek Atlantic rate accord. (pg. 58)

Gloom is disappearing in steel industry. (pg. 43)

May 2, 1961

A request that the United Nations send observers to Laos was said to be under consideration by the United States. The urgency stemmed from fear that a cease-fire might come too late to save Prince Boun Oum’s pro-Western regime from being overwhelmed by the Communist-led rebels. (1:8)

Secretary of State Rusk assured a Senate panel that the United States had "no plans" for any armed intervention in Cuba. He indicated that this country "will defend itself" against any aggression by the Castro regime. (1:7)

A forceful plea for bipartisan support of Mr. Kennedy in the Cuban situation was made by former President Eisenhower in Gettysburg. He urged the country to forgo "witch-hunting" investigation of the disastrous Cuban landing last month. (1:5-6)

A middle-aged passenger hijacked an airliner over Florida and made it detour to Havana, where he got off. The plane then flew safely to Key West. (1:6)

After 500,000 had marched in a May Day celebration in Havana, Premier Castro declared that there would be no more elections in Cuba. (1:4)

President Kennedy carried out a major campaign promise as he signed the $394,000,000 bill to aid areas economically depressed by chronic unemployment. (1:1)

A "compromise" minimum-wage bill was approved by a Senate-House conference committee. (26:1)

Shortly after sunrise this morning, an American test pilot was scheduled to be rocketed aloft from Cape Canaveral for a 290-mile ride out to sea in this country’s first manned space test. (1:2)

British-U.S. dispute developing on Laos policy. (pg. 5)

Suit challenges allotment of legislative seats. (pg. 28)

High Court backs dismissals in rail mergers. (pg. 26)

May 3, 1961

It might have been accidental on the part of the Communists, but there was a cease-fire yesterday in a critical battle zone in Laos following a meeting between a royal army officer and rebel officer. There was general absence of fighting in Laos except for certain areas in the south. (1:8)

Arthur H. Dean, the United States’ chief negotiator at Geneva, told President Kennedy that little progress had been made and that they Soviet demand that control machinery over the proposed test ban be under a three-member directorate was a step backwards. (1:7)

The State Department in one of the United States’ strongest statements on Cuba, said bluntly that that troubled country was a full-fledged member of the Communist bloc. Consultations were under way with Latin-American Governments for a joint approach to the problem. (1:5)

Last month’s unsuccessful Cuban counter-revolution had three more effects: President Kennedy chose Dr. James R. Killian Jr., chairman of M.I.T., to head the Presidential board that monitors Government intelligence activities. A Senate committee questioned C.I.A. Director Allen W. Dulles on the agency’s role in the Cuban landings and there was growing support in the Senate to set up a Congressional "watchdog" committee over the Government’s intelligence and information programs. (1:6-7)

The Cabinet of Katanga Province asked the U.N. to organize a new conference of Congo leaders to discuss the Congo’s future. The Cabinet also appealed for the release of President Tshombe, under arrest in Equator Province. (1:8)

The United States’ first "man in space" flight was postponed, because of bad weather. Navy Commander Alan B. Shepard Jr. was picked to make the trip. (1:3)

Members of Congress expressed concern over space-shot publicity, but said it was inevitable. (17:1)

Senate and House conferees agreed on legislation to create seventy-three Federal judgeships. (23:3)

Interior Secretary Udall denied that he had asked a friend to sell $100 Jefferson-Jackson Day tickets to oil and gas men. He admitted, however, telling a friend who happened to be an oil man that he hoped the friend would be at the dinner. (1:2-3)

China sets big purchases of Canadian grain. (pg. 1)

Powerful SEATO forces "assault" Borneo. (pg. 2)

Jobless rolls decline for month, U.S. reports. (pg. 41)

Henry J. Kaiser, industrialist, dies. (pg. 37)

Kennedy forms new small business group. (pg. 48)

May 4, 1961

Pro-Communist Laotian rebels proclaimed a ceasefire in Laos yesterday. This was followed some hours later by a battalion-strength rebel assault on a key southern town, but attributed this to a failure in communications. The rebel order was coupled with an appeal to the pro-Western Government to negotiate an armistice followed by a peace conference. (1:8)

Vice President Johnson was expected to leave next week for the Far East on a mission to reassure Thailand and South Vietnam of increased United States support. (3:1)

President Kennedy welcomed President Habib Bourguiba of Tunisia to Washington. (1:5-7)

The United States was ready to lend India a billion dollars in the next two years to help meet foreign exchange requirements of her third five-year plan. The offer was said to be conditional on other nations providing an equal amount. (1:5)

In the wake of Premier Castro’s dedication of Cuba as a Socialist republic, alarmed Brazilians raised a clamor for a meeting of the Americas’ foreign ministers for discussion of possible action. (1:6)

In Havana, the capture of Capt. Manuel Artime, one of the leaders of the abortive rebel landings, and twenty-one more of the invaders was announced by the Government. The captain had been an officer in the Castro rebel army. (1:7)

Britain sentenced George Blake, a former British vice consul in Korea to 42 years in prison for spying for Moscow. (1:8)

President Kennedy had decided that the Peace Corps would not be merged with other foreign aid programs, but would have semi-autonomous status under the State Department. (1:2)

Pay increases were assured 2,500,000 workers with final Congressional approval of the Kennedy minimum wage bill. The measure extends coverage to about 3,624,000 persons. It provides a minimum of $1.25 an hour for the 24,000,000 now covered. (1:1)

In this House two committees dissented in part on the President’s judgments on defense and space planning. They authorized continuation of jet bomber production beyond the close-out date and tentatively approved fund increases to speed plans to develop space ships to orbit a team of astronauts around the moon. (1:4)

The Air Force successfully launched a Titan I missile for the first time. (1:2-3)

Intelligence post for Killian is confirmed. (pg. 11)

Kennedy reopens case of soldier in jail. (pg. 75)

Kennedy honored by George Washington U. (pg. 24)

Textile leaders hail new Kennedy program. (pg. 49)

May 5, 1961

Chairman Fulbright of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee strongly implied that the Administration was considering the possibility of direct military intervention in South Vietnam and Thailand. Secretary of State Rusk told a news conference that military aid to South Vietnam would be increased and left the implication that more economic help was forthcoming. He disclosed he would head the U.S. delegation to the proposed Laos peace conference beginning next Friday. (1:8 ’ excerpts, pg. 10)

In Laos, talks between the pro-Western Government and the pro-Communist rebels were scheduled to begin at noon today, but both aides appeared to want to talk about different things. Prince Souvanna Phouma wants to take up first the formation of a coalition of government, while Premier Boun Oum wants to tackle truce details. (1:6-7)

On Latin America, Secretary Rusk said the "real issue" was the battle against poverty. He told of "very intensive" inter-American consultations on the immediate Cuban problem ’ talks that are expected to lead to an emergency foreign minister’s meeting, possibly early next month. (1:6-7)

The Cuban Government intensified its campaign against Roman Catholic priests, seizing many parochial schools. (10:4-5)

Latin America has become the concern also of Presidents Tito of Yugoslavia and Nasser of UAR; they have opened a drive to bring it into the neutralist orbit. They hope to add Latin heads of state to "another Bandung" conference of African-Asian nations. (1:5)

A balloon forty stories high carried two Navy scientists to a record altitude of 21.5 miles, but one of them, a surgeon observer, was killed while being retrieved from the Gulf of Mexico. The surgeon fell from the ’copter sling and was fatally injured. (1:2-4)

At Cape Canaveral, the countdown began for a second attempt to send an astronaut on a 290-mile rocket flight some time after sun-up today. (1:3)

The House approved and sent the Senate an Administration bill for $11,000,000,000 to complete the 41,000 mile Interstate Highway System in 1972. The proposed reduction in fuel taxes would be cancelled and some $150,000,000 would be added each year to levies on tire and truck industries. (1:4)

American Assembly meets on disarmament. (pg. 3)

White House drops "cold war" polls abroad. (pg. 2)

Two Westinghouse aides defend price-fixing. (pg. 14)

U.S. retail auto sales continue climb. (pg. 39)

West Germany reduces its bank rate. (pg. 39)

May 6, 1961

The countdown finally reached zero and a jet of yellow flame lifted the slender rocket lifted the first American space explorer Cmdr. Alan B. Shepard, Jr. 115 miles into space and into history. (1:8; Text, pg. 8)

Shortly after being put aboard the carrier the commander received a personal call of congratulations from President Kennedy. Later, Mr. Kennedy promised the nation an even greater effort in the exploration of space. (1:7, Text, page 11).

The Soviet Union belittled the exploit as compared to the orbiting of Maj. Yuri Gagarin. (11:2-3)

In addition to representing the hopes of millions, the flight represented the combined efforts of some 9,000 businesses. (11:4)

President Kennedy said at his news conference that the United States had no plans "at this time" to train Cuban exiles as a separate force. (16:3)

Treasury Secretary Dillon disclosed Administration plans to submit to Congress next year a tax reform program that would include reductions in individual income taxes. (1:6)

New Orleans a voter registrar who denied practicing discrimination failed the test she gives to Negro applicants. (23:2-3)

Six American experts left for the Soviet Union to explore technical education there, with the hope of seeing Major Gagarin or at least the school that produced him. (21:3)

Kennedy plans aid to retrain the jobless. (pg. 1)

President signs bill extending minimum wage law. (pg. 14)

Goldberg asked to help missile labor inquiry. (pg. 12)

May 7, 1961

Premier Khrushchev announced that Soviet-American disarmament negotiations would take place in a short time. He indicated these would be substantive talks in which firm decisions on actual disarmament steps would be made. (1:8)

Washington said there were no plans for two-nation arms talks. (15:3-4)

At NATO’s annual spring meeting, Secretary of State Rusk is expected to make a strong commitment to maintain American ground forces in Europe and an equally strong plea for an increase in NATO’s potential for brush-fire warfare. (1:6)

In Laos, military representatives of the pro-Western Government and the pro-Communist rebels failed to agree on machinery for operating the cease-fire and broke up without setting a new meeting. (1:7)

A special "crisis center" has been set up in the State Department to keep a 24-hour-a-day watch on trouble spots. (1:7)

Today the astronaut is to have a personal greeting by President Kennedy, a medal-pinning ceremony at the White House, a motorcade up Pennsylvania Avenue, a Congressional reception and, if he has the endurance, a news conference. (1:2)

Quotation of the Day: "When parents send their children to school this fall in Atlanta, peaceably and in accordance with the rule of law, barefoot Burmese and Congolese will see before their eyes Americans living by the rule of the law." -- Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, speaking in Athens, Ga. (63:1)

The President’s brother Robert went into the South to deliver his first formal speech as Attorney General and made it a resolute stand on civil rights. (1:3; Text, page 62.)

Cuban’s say C.I.A. imprisoned them 11 weeks. (pg. 1)

Castro election ban seen aiding U.S. prestige. (pg. 5)

Belgrade imperils U.S. Information Service. (pg. 34)

Kennedy names Food-for-Peace council. (pg. 50)

Louisiana vote registrar takes 5th Amendment. (pg. 64)

May 8, 1961

Secretary of State Rusk prepared to urge the European allies at the NATO ministerial council meeting in Oslo to boost their conventional forces to the point that nuclear weapons become a "last resort." (1:8)

The Congo Government announced its intentions to try President Tshombe of break-away Katanga Province for "high treason" and indicated it was holding him responsible for the death of former Premier Lumumba. (1:6)

Moroccans protested that French mortars in Algeria had shelled Bou Beker, more than a mile inside Moroccan Territory. (13:3)

Bonn has drafted a formal rejection of a Soviet bid for talks with West Germany on a peace treaty. The draft is being considered by the United States, Britain and France with a view to whether it should reflect a willingness of the Western Big Three to enter into new negotiations on Germany and Berlin. (1:7)

The Air Force has been ordered to halt wasteful labor-management practices in the "top priority" missile-base construction program. (1:4)

Pauling urges ban on atom arms for NATO. (pg. 2)

Robert Kennedy backs move for more Polish aid. (pg. 5)

U.S. justice to testify against Eichmann. (pg. 9)

Kennedy speeds curb on Congress tariff bloc. (pg. 1)

Hiking capital dignitaries unwelcome at inn. (pg. 1)

Kennedy attends Byrd’s party in Virginia. (pg. 31)

May 9, 1961

The Atlantic Alliance meeting heard Secretary of State Rusk warn that any Soviet encroachment on Allied position in West Berlin would be resisted by the United States. Mr. Rusk said he expected Moscow to sign a World War II peace treaty with East Germany this summer. (1:8)

President Kennedy indicated that the free world could not look for any real easing of Communist pressures soon. A determined and powerful communist system, he said would subject the rest of the world to many tests of nerves and will in the coming years. (1:7)

President de Gaulle promised the Algerian Moslem rebels a full discussion of the future of a free Algeria in the forthcoming negotiations. He made clear that he would seek a self-governing Algeria ’ associated with France ’ with or without agreement by the Nationalists. (1:5, Text, pg. 14)

The United States promised to the OAS a detailed agenda for a ministerial conference requested last week by President Kennedy. The agenda would set in motion far-ranging economic and social development in Latin America. (1:6)

"Smooth" was Commander Shepard’s description of his experience as American’s first man in space. The poised and modest astronaut told an applauding news conference that his rocket ride had no "bad moments at all." (1:2-5, Text, page 34)

Without White House fanfare, or formal endorsement, a series of civil rights bills was introduced in Congress by Democrats. Republicans accused the Administration of timidity. (1:3-4)

President Kennedy will issue an Executive order for machinery to avert work stoppages in missile base construction. (1:2)

Cuban regime seizes clubs in Santiago. (pg. 13)

President sees Appalachian Governors on aid. (pg. 19)

Kennedy signs bill aiding children of unemployed. (pg. 10)

May 10, 1961

The North Atlantic Alliance received yesterday a United States pledge to commit Polaris nuclear missile submarines to forces assigned to NATO. Five of the submarines will be contributed initially, but more will be added as they become available. It was understood that the force would be under Unites States fleet commanders. (1:8)

In the Soviet bloc, the departure of the Soviet commander from East Berlin and his replacement by a colonel gave rise to speculation that the Soviet Union might be preparing to turn over control of East Berlin to East Germany. (1:8)

The Unites States delegation to planned 14-power conference on Laos left for Geneva. (1:7)

Vice President Johnson left Washington ’ on a mission to reassure nations in Asia of United States support against Communist aggression. (1:5-7)

Documents submitted at the trial of Adolf Eichmann contained charges that his orders sent 4,000 Jewish children from France to the gas chambers at Auschwitz. (1:3-4)

Spurred by the success of the first United States man-in-space flight, the Administration is planning a 25 per cent increase in the space budget. (1:1)

The Senate Armed Services Committee joined its House counterpart in unanimously asking more long-range strategic bombers than either President Eisenhower or Kennedy believed necessary. (1:5)

The White House disassociated itself from civil rights legislation introduced by two Democrats in Congress Monday. Mr. Kennedy’s spokesman said that "the President has made it clear that he does not think it necessary at this time to enact civil rights legislation." (1-2:3)

A revised version of the Administration’s school-aid bill was cleared by a House subcommittee on a party-line vote of 4 to 3. (27:3)

Newton N. Minow, the chairman of the FCC presented a scorching indictment of current television at a convention of more than 2,000 broadcasters. (1:2-3; Text, Page 19)

Iran’s Parliament is dissolved in crisis. (pg. 6)

Cuba delays exit permits for 300 Americans. (pg. 11)

U.S. urged to bar aid for invasion of Cuba. (pg. 13)

Kennedy assures press leaders on access to news. (pg. 3)

Kennedy pledges to strengthen civil defense. (pg. 16)

S.B.A. plans to liberalize loan policies. (pg. 65)

May 11, 1961

In a communiqué the NATO Council took the United States view and resolved to counter the global as well as the European challenge of the Soviet-Chinese bloc. (1:8; Text, Pg. 4)

In Geneva, Secretary Rusk said he was ready to join in Laos peace talks ’ scheduled to begin tomorrow ’ but insisted he would not sit down at the conference table unless confirmation of a cease-fire had been obtained. And that signal must come from the International Control Commission. (1:4)

Discouragement over prospects of keeping Laos out of Communist hands was reported from neighboring Thailand. It felt that unless Washington takes strong immediate steps to arrest Communist progress in Southeast Asia, Thailand may leave SEATO and seek security with neighboring neutralist nations. (1:5-6)

Defense Secretary McNamara promised that he would reduce the disclosure of military information. He said he had been shocked when his own statement to Senators on aircraft, missile and ship requirements was cleared for publication with details that would be "of great value" to a "Soviet planner." (1:1)

A.T.&T. disclosed that it had not received a definite reply from the Government on its request last December for a go-ahead in launching an experimental communications satellite. The company said with a green light now, the first could be launched by early next year and a 20-satellite link across the Atlantic could be in operation by 1964. (8:1)

Congress will be urged by the Administration next week to end the requirement that a specified amount of gold be held as an official reserve. (1:7)

Washington is now prepared to give financial aid to foreign government-owned oil companies, including state monopolies. A request for aid from Bolivia is already under study. (1:5)

In a scene recalling the campaign, the President and his wife were jostled by a friendly group of more than 1,000 foreign students on the White House lawn. (1:3)

Fleeing Cubans said to mob airlines offices. (pg. 20)

N.A.A.C.P. attacks Kennedy on rights bills. (pg. 24)

Westinghouse pledges policy of compliance. (pg. 22)

Kerr attacks Kennedy bill on care of aged. (pg. 26)

U.S. monetary role feared in Europe. (pg. 51)

May 12, 1961

President Kennedy got Senate approval for a new economic tool of foreign policy ’ wide authority to aid Iron Curtain countries whenever he thought it would help wean them away from Moscow. The legislation faces an uncertain fate in the House. (1:8)

The President proposed to Congress a five-year program of "total attack" to prevent and control youth crime, treat offenders and train youth workers. The President also issued an Executive Order creating a Committee on Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Crime to coordinate Federal efforts with those of cities and states. (1:1; Texts, Page 14)

A revised school aid bill, authorizing $252,000,000 more than Mr. Kennedy had recommended, emerged from Senate committee with a new allocation formula designed to attract Southern Democratic votes. (15:1)

The House Armed Services Committee questioned the practicality and reliability of intercontinental ballistic missiles. It pressed for production of B-52 and B-58 bombers beyond present cut-off dates. (1:5)

The Labor Department last month saw the first "significant" upturn in employments since the start of the recession. However, the number of long-term jobless was at a postwar high of 2,128,000. (1:4)

Export Bank head denies conflict of interest. (pg. 8)

McNamara clarifies stand on information. (pg. 10)

May 13, 1961

A surprise Soviet demand on equal status to the Laos conference for the pro-Communist Pathet Lao movement with the royal Government and the Souvanna Phouma neutralists was rejected by Secretary of State Rusk. As attempts were made to change the Soviet stand, little likelihood was seen that the meeting could begin before Monday. (1:1)

Premier Khrushchev told a rally of 10,000 in the Georgian capital of Tiflis that the Russians were the freest people on earth, and insisted that by example, not bayonets or rockets, communism would gain control of the world one day. (1:2-3)

Congolese leaders meeting in Equator Province completed the defeat of President Tshombe of breakaway Katanga in unveiling a plan for a "United States of the Congo". The principal point was that the chief of state would have very strong powers -- and there was no doubt that he would be President Kasavubu. (1:5)

The forceful President of Tunisia, Habib Bourguiba had a stream of blunt talk at the United Nations for colonialists, Communists, Zionists, big power meddlers and little-power meddlers. (4:3)

The International Development Association, an independent affiliate of the World Bank, made its first loan -- $9,000,000 to Honduras for highway developments. The association is the "soft-term window" in the "hard-term" World Bank, which made $22,000,000 loan for hydro-electric power expansion in Columbia. (1:2)

The Federal Reserve Board reported a strong pick-up in industrial production in April and prospects for more of the same in May. The 2 ’ per cent rise, paced by the automobile and steel industries, confirmed a recent trend toward recovery from the recession and was interpreted as evidence of an even stronger recovery than had been expected. (1:8)

In more Congressional testimony made public, General Lemnitzer said he and the other Joint Chiefs of Staff were in agreement "that we do have at the present time the power to destroy the Soviet Union." He said he did not believe a war was any more imminent today than a year ago, but he said there had been a deterioration in the international situation since then. (1:4-5)

The Pentagon said new classification criteria had been introduced to prevent public disclosure of intelligence-gathering techniques. As a result, manuscripts for the Air University Quarterly Review, cleared by the Eisenhower Administration, may now be withheld. (1:7-8)

Teamster President Hoffa joined two maritime union leaders ’ Joseph Curran and Captain William Bradley ’ in announcing agreement to enter into a formal mutual assistance pact. (1:6-7)

Private U.S. ’ Soviet talks to open May 22. (pg. 2)

Talk at Hague; American intrusion resented. (pg. 2)

Peiping pledges support for Castro regime. (pg. 5)

Freeman puts old wheat controls into effect. (pg. 6)

Kennedy urges U.S. to take road of liberalism. (pg. 6)

Presidential group confers on airline dispute. (pg. 42)

May 14, 1961

There was no break yesterday in the East-West deadlock holding up the opening of the fourteen-nation conference on Laos in Geneva. Secretary Rusk conferred with Foreign Minister Gromyko but the Soviet official refuse to back down on his insistence that the Pathet Lao movement be seated as an equal with the royal Government and the Souvanna Phouma neutralists. (1:8)

President Kasavubu announced at the conference of Congo political leaders in Coquilhatville that he would ask the U.N. to guarantee the personal safety of the members and their families and to help in getting them to Leopoldville. (1:7)

It was learned that President Kennedy would ask Congress to authorize the new, consolidated foreign aid agency to borrow $7,300,000,000 from the Treasury over five years for long-term development loans. Part of the money would come each year from payments of principal and interest on Marshall Plan loans. In this way the Administration hopes to set up a revolving fund for development assistance. (1:4)

The pressure of international events is causing the Administration to modify its earlier plans for more stay-at-home diplomacy. On Wednesday, the President will be in Ottawa, Vice President Johnson will be flying from Hong Kong to Thailand and Secretary of State Rusk will be in Geneva. (46:3-4)

Administration officials have begun negotiations with the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation for a nation-wide agreement to end job discrimination against Negroes at its plants. (76:7)

May 15, 1961

President Kennedy was reported yesterday to be considering a conference with Premier Khrushchev in early June in a mid-European city. The meeting would take place immediately after Mr. Kennedy’s visit with President de Gaulle in Paris, May 31 to June 2. The confrontation was said to hinge on a sudden turn for the better in the Geneva conferences on nuclear tests and on Laos. (Page 1, Col. 8)

Great and small powers remained deadlocked on the question of seating three Laotian factions. (1:7)

With Vice President Johnson standing at his side, President Chiang Kai-Shek told a news conference in Taipei today that Nationalist China had the Kennedy Administration’s pledge of continued unqualified support and that Washington had no intention of recognizing the Communist regime. (1:6-7)

The White House announced that the United States had offered Bolivia nearly $10,000,000 in immediate economic and relief aid. (1:8)

Dominicans reported in bid for Soviet help. (Page 13)

May 16, 1961

A broadcast crackling over the Seoul radio at dawn announced that South Korean Army rebels had revolted and assumed all governmental powers. The broadcast described the junta as pledged to close cooperation with the United States and determined to stamp out Governmental corruption. (1:8)

The United States Embassy in Seoul issued a statement expressing strong support for Premier Chang’s "freely elected and constitutionally established government," and urging its restoration. (1:6-7)

In Geneva the fourteen-nation talks on Laos were set for today after the United States acquiesced in a British-Soviet proposal on seating the rival Laotian factions. (1:5)

The Russians accused the West of ignoring their warning against French nuclear testing and threatened to resume their own nuclear explosions. (1:6)

The President will fly to Ottawa with Mrs. Kennedy for a two-day state visit. (18:4)

President Kennedy wrote that his calls to Americans for specific sacrifices were meeting strong resistance. He said he had asked many talented people to give up higher incomes to serve their country, but not all were willing. (1:1)

White and Negro "Freedom Riders" canceled a violence-marred bus trip through the South after drivers balked. They flew to New Orleans after an earlier flight was delayed by a bomb warning. (1:2)

An extensive investigation will be made of the American Stock Exchange, the S.E.C. announced. The inquiry arises from the disclosure that two exchange members took part in a multi-million-dollar stock manipulation. (1:2-3)

Pentagon locates 27 Soviet missile-firing sites. Page 19

May 17, 1961

Qualified sources in Washington said that the United States had ruled out any abrupt, direct intervention in the latest Korean crisis. It was understood that no consideration was being given to cutting off United States military and economic aid to South Korea. (1:6-7)

Mr. Kennedy called for Canadian support for hemisphere solidarity. (1:2-3)

At the opening of the Geneva conference on Laos, Communist China’s Foreign Minister, Marshal Chen Yi, bitterly accused the United States of sabotage, threats and military menaces in Southeast Asia. (1:5)

Mr. Johnson arrived in Bangkok on the last leg of his Southeast Asian tour. It was learned he would sound the leaders of Thailand on the stationing of United States and perhaps other Allied troops in their Communist-threatened country. (1:6)

Antoine Gizenga, head of the regime in Stanleyville, rejected President Joseph Kasavubu’s call for a meeting. (1:5)

In Jerusalem, a German pastor testified that Adolf Eichmann harbored a demonic hatred of Jews and was impervious to pleas for clemency. (1:6-7)

Secretary of Commerce Luther H. Hodges announced substantial increases in personal incomes and in factory sales and new orders. (20:4)

The International Longshoremen’s Association canceled its pledge to enter a mutual-aid pact with the International Brotherhood of Teamsters and the National Maritime Union. The cancellation was motivated by the union’s desire to stay in good standing with the A.FL.-C.I.O. (1:4)

U.S. backs new control unit for Laos. Page 6

Kennedy backs Common Market aims. Page 12

Peace Corps to aid project in South America. Page 11

Robert Kennedy bids club admit Negroes.

May 18, 1961

In South Korea the deposed Premier, Dr. John M. Chang, appeared, met with the military leaders and presented the resignation of his Government. Dr. Chang voiced hopes for progress in national reforms by Seoul and his belief that the country’s anti-Communist policies would be strengthened. (1, Col. 8)

While the United States kept "hands off," the hope was that a stable civilian government was soon to be formed in Seoul. (1:7)

Secretary of State Rusk and Foreign Minister Gromyko outlined their countries’ plans for a neutral Laos at the Geneva conference yesterday, and both called for the withdrawal of foreign troops. They clashed over two articles in the Soviet draft agreement, which would give the Soviet bloc a veto over the authority of the Control Commission to maintain Laos’ neutrality. (1:4)

In neighboring Thailand a communiqué was issued in which the United States agreed to increase military assistance in the Face of an intensified Communist threat from Laos. Whether American troops would be involved was not made clear. (1:6)

President Kennedy in Ottawa in a speech to Parliament urged Canada to become a partner in hemisphere as well as North American affairs. It said that a "somber threat was now posed to the whole neighborhood of this continent, in fact to the whole community of nations." (1:2-3)

Southern Democrats pressed for a guarantee that the school-aid bill would not be used to force school integration. (1:1)

An Administration bill designed to draw more foreign tourists to the country was passed by the House, and sent to Senate-House conference. The House also approved legislation to reduce from $500 to $100 the value of goods an American may bring home duty free. (1:8)

Congress was asked by Attorney General Kennedy to give the Justice Department more power to go after hoodlums and racketeers who "have become so rich and powerful that they have outgrown local authorities." (18:3)

British hail Kennedy-Khrushchev meeting. (3)

Castro would exchange captives for bulldozers. (8)

Two agencies vie to control Food for Peace. (5)

Shriver will seek 25 million for Peace Corps. (5)

Hodges picks group to draft code of ethics. (24)

Watered ham protested by consumer groups. (46)

May 19, 1961

A Laotian Government complaint of "violent fighting" despite the truce forced the Geneva conferees to turn last night from talk of a general settlement to a more immediate problem. Canada’s delegate demanded that Moscow agree to strengthen the International Control Commission’s powers to quell the fighting. The Soviet delegate declined immediate discussion. (1, Col. 1)

President Kennedy is planning to send Adlai E. Stevenson on a goodwill tour of Latin America next month. His itinerary is believed certain to include those countries that have shown reluctance to join in inter-American actions against Cuba. (1:3)

Southern Senators drive to get a guarantee of Federal funds for segregated schools ran into a storm of Republican and liberal Democratic opposition. (1:5)

Congressional Democrats decided to support a drive to kill the President’s plan to give more power to Chairman Minow of the F.C.C. Opposition mushroomed since Mr. Minow’s warning that television broadcasters may lose their licenses unless they improve programming. (1:6-7)

The civilian space agency announced that R.C.A. selected to build the Government’s first experimental communications satellite. (1:7)

The Administration was hesitating over launching the first satellite carrying an atomic battery because of diplomatic complications. The launch path is directly over Cuba and down the middle of South America. (2:6-7)

N.A.M. condemns Kennedy tax-incentive idea. (14)

Publishers fight increase in postal rates. (14)

Marine engineers threaten a tie-up.

May 20, 1961

President Kennedy and Premier Khrushchev will get together for the first time in Vienna June 3 and 4. Mr. Kennedy will go to Austria immediately after three days to talks with President de Gaulle in Paris and will then go on to London to confer with Prime Minister Macmillan. It was emphasized that the Kennedy-Khrushchev confrontation would be strictly informal. (1, Col. 8; Text, 2)

The United States charged that "a pacific, neutral and unified Laos in communist language really means a Laos always dominated from the outside by communism." However, the conference did agree to provide the Control Commission with any aid needed in supervising the cease-fire. (1:6-7)

The military junta in power in South Korea tightened its grip by imprisoning at least eight members of the ousted Cabinet. President Posum Yun resigned his office as chief of state. His action posed some question for United States and other diplomatic representatives as to their accreditation. (1:4)

President de Gaulle threatened the workers with requisition in the event of new walkouts. The penalties for refusing to stay on the job are fines or prison terms. (1:8)

An American correspondent just back from Cuba after thirty years there told of terror of the dreaded secret police and of a regime armed to the teeth for an expected invasion. (1:2-3)

In Montgomery, Ala., a circuit judge prohibited "Freedom Riders" from testing bus segregation in the state. (1:5)

President Kennedy made an unsuccessful effort to reach Governor Patterson of Alabama on the telephone discuss the racial tension in Birmingham. (1:6)

A middle-aged Puerto Rican migrant laborer testified before the House committee that his net pay for working 142 hours on a New Jersey asparagus farm was $12.31. He also told of being beaten with a nightstick. (1:2)

President asks new controls on pension funds. (21)

Khrushchev sees increased trade with Britain. (2)

May 21, 1961

At Lake Geneva, France opened peace negotiations yesterday with the Algerian Moslem rebels. The French began the talks at Evian-les-Bains with a declaration of a unilateral cease-fire, a promise to free 6,000 prisoners and a move to liberalize treatment of captured rebel leaders. (1, Col. 1)

President de Gaulle was urged by Chancellor Adenauer to adopt a more cooperative attitude toward NATO. Although the two leaders "agreed on the need to strengthen the alliance," General de Gaulle refused to integrate French forces. (1:2)

In South Korea, President Posun Yun withdrew his resignation. A Government of military men took office at Seoul today. It pledged domestic reforms and close ties with the United Nations. (1:4)

Rioting broke out in Montgomery, Ala. Tear gas finally quelled the major fighting. (1:6-7)

The Federal Government dispatched several hundred marshals to Alabama to restore order. This move followed a White House statement in which the President deplored the mob attack and called on Governor Patterson to prevent any further outbreaks. (1:8; Text, 78)

One of those injured was a Justice Department aide who was in the city to talk with Governor Patterson. The aide was struck on the head while trying to protect a white girl being chased by the mob. (79:2-3)

"I hope that state and local officials in Alabama will meet their responsibilities. The United States Government intends to meet its." President Kennedy. (78:5)

State of the economy message will propose relocating workers and their families from chronic unemployment areas also training and retraining new and jobless workers. (1:4)

Ten Cubans, seized by Castro forces in the April 17 rebel landing, arrived in Miami on parole to arrange an exchange of the Cuban-held prisoners for 500 bulldozers. (1:5)

Johnson ends Asian tour in Pakistan. (2)

U.S. acts in Europe to aid Latin trade. (14)

Quadros is firm on policy toward Cuba. (16)

Ben-Gurion expected to see President Kennedy. (23)

Implementation of "Health for Peace" urged. (76)

May 22, 1961

In moves to rally popular support, the new regime in South Korea distributed rice to the poor, relaxed the curfew and reopened movies houses. The Foreign Minister said today that, after last Tuesday’s coup, the junta sent a letter to President Kennedy, presumably setting out the junta’s reform purposes. (1, Col. 2-3)

There was no relaxation in the undeclared war along the Moroccan-Algerian frontier. The day after the opening of the French-Algerian peace talks found the Algerian rebels moderating their initial reaction to France’s unilateral cease-fire. (1:2)

At the United Nations the committee of eight working on ideas for revamping the Secretariat is split on a proposal for three deputy secretaries general to share policy-making responsibilities. (1:4)

The Pakistan Government reported its air force planes had strafed Afghan forces in the Khyber Pass frontier region. It charged that Afghans had been firing on Pakistani border posts for two days. (1:6)

Gov. John Patterson of Alabama proclaimed martial law in Montgomery last night. The move came after Federal marshals, reinforced by local police, had to use tear gas to quell an angry mob of hundreds of whites outside a mass Negro church meeting. The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. telephoned President Kennedy for help. (1:8)

The state of Alabama, too, called on the Federal Government for help. (1:6-7)

In the first court decision subjecting it to the anti-trust laws, the New York Stock Exchange was held liable to damages for having required its members to discontinue private-wire connections with Texas broker-dealer. (1:5)

Congo opposes return of Dayal. (5)

Mississippi Governor offers aid to Alabama. (1)

Veterans group assails most disability benefits. (20)

Problems seen in collecting taxes from Amish. (45)

Action on gold reserve requirement stalled. (45)

Drive to cut mortgage rates bears fruit. (45)

May 23, 1961

South Korea’s anti-Communist military junta ended its first week in power yesterday by announcing the dissolution of all political parties and many social organizations. Indications that Washington’s attitude toward the regime would depend on its performance. (1, Col. 5)

Soviet officials in Geneva were taking a hopeful line about the Kennedy-Khrushchev meeting in Vienna June 3. The Russians were saying that the two leaders might be able to "remove misunderstandings." (1:4)

Premier Ben-Gurion would probably make the request of Mr. Kennedy in New York next week that he propose to Premier Khrushchev that the big powers recognize existing borders in the Middle East. (1:4)

A group of American citizens, headed by Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt, pledged to send 500 tractors to the Castro Government to obtain the release of 1,214 prisoners. Premier Castro, however, now demands 1,200 "political prisoners" rather than the 500 tractors. (1:2)

President Kennedy ordered 200 additional Federal marshals into Alabama to help prevent new racial violence. (1:8)

In Montgomery, white-helmeted National Guardsmen in green fatigues enforced an uneasy truce under martial law. (1:6-7)

The Supreme Court ruled that E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. must dispose of its 63,000,000 shares in the General Motors Corporation. A divestiture to begin promptly and be completed within ten years. (1:1; Text, 32)

President Kennedy nominated Gen. Curtis E. LeMay, an early exponent of strategic bombing, for a two-year term as Air Force Chief of Staff. (1:7)

Duvalier installed for second term in Haiti. (4)

U.S. expresses regret on Korean junta’s action. (8)

Strife over Kashmir threatened in Karachi. (10)

Eichmann accused in deaths of Salonika Jews. (18)

Voice of America reports on Alabama rioting. (27)

Moses bids U.S. excel at World’s Fair. (47)

May 24, 1961

As the opening phase of the Geneva conference on Laos neared completion, France proposed that East and West accept an international charter for Laotian neutrality as an essential requirement for peace in Laos. (1:1)

In South Vietnam Laotian border areas adjacent to South Vietnam seized by pro-Communist forces. New offensive of Vietnamese Communist forces in northern mountain regions. (6:4)

South Korea’s ruling junta to end rejected parts of a draft agreement aimed at ending defiance by Korean military forces of the operational control of the U.N. commander. (1:2-3)

President Kennedy personally asked three prominent private citizens last week to organize the "tractors-for-prisoners" exchange with Castro. (1:2)

President Kennedy is ready to tell Congress of the urgent need for United States space men to reach moon first. The President’s message would outline the huge expenditures such a program would require. (1:8)

1,100 National Guardsmen in combat dress patrolled the streets of Montgomery, Ala., and 666 Federal deputy marshals were held in readiness for any further racial violence. (1:5)

Robert F. Kennedy told Alabama members of Congress that he would maintain a Federal peace force in their state only as long as necessary. However, he said, "What is needed now is action on the part of Governor Patterson and local law enforcement officers ’ not merely words of intension" (1:4)

Housing bill seen aiding mid-income building. Page 31

Panel urges changes in U.S. office of education. Page 33

May 25, 1961

President Kennedy appealed to all Americans yesterday to contribute "what they can" for the 500 tractors. (1:1)

Washington rejected a bid for an early meeting of the President and the Premier of the new military regime of South Korea because of Mr. Kennedy’s crowded schedule. (1:2-3)

The President dispatched Arthur Dean to Geneva to make "every reasonable effort" for a "workable and effective" nuclear test-ban treaty. (18:3)

"Freedom Riders" were arrested and jailed in Jackson, Miss. They were seized as they attempted to enter the white rest rooms and cafeteria in the bus terminal. (1:8)

Another group of Freedom Riders headed by Yale University Chaplain William S. Coffin Jr. arrived by bus in Montgomery. The terminal was cleared soon after because of a bomb scare. (26:3)

Violence in Montgomery and Birmingham prompted a Justice Department attempt to bring police officials of those two cities under a Federal court injunction prohibiting interference with interstate travel. Attorney general said police had withheld protection from the Freedom Riders. (1:6-7)

The House passed a record $12,368,000,000 authorization for planes, missiles and ships. (1:6)

Justice Department submitted "guidelines" for desegregation of New Rochelle’s predominantly Negro Lincoln School. (22:2)

Great Neck’s Committee for Human rights announced that twenty-five homes in white neighborhoods had been made available to Negro tenants or buyers. (1:6)

Ranier and Princess Grace call on Kennedys. Page 1

Limit on West German Navy eased by allies. Page 17

Jet crosses U.S. in 2 hours, 47 minutes. Page 16

Congress to get Kennedy youth program. Page 29

May 26, 1961

Hammarskjöld announced the resignation of Rajeshwar Dayal of India, the special United Nations representative in the Congo. It was indicated he would not be replaced. (1:5)

President Kennedy proposed bold and expensive measures for space exploration, for non-nuclear military strength and foreign aid to promote a "Freedom Doctrine" around the globe. (1:8)

He outlined plans to reorganize Army combat units and strengthen the marines and recommended tripling planned appropriations to provide $312,000,000 for civil defense fall-out shelters. (13:5)

State authorities in Montgomery jailed seven more Freedom Riders, including the Yale chaplain and three professors, and four Negro leaders. (1:1)

The Labor Department reported that the Consumer price Index remained unchanged at a record level in April, and that despite some sharp drops and rises in individual items the trend was toward a continued "stability." (1:7)

Congo adopts unicameral Congress plan.

Canadian stand on recognition of Peiping hardens. Page 4

Southern Baptist vote praise of Kennedy. Page 1

Rocket plane goes 3,370 miles an hour. Page 9

Racial barriers facing African diplomats. Page 21

Lockheed signs anti-discrimination job pact. Page 20

U.S. panel urges pilots, engineers to merge. Page 66

May 27, 1961

President Kennedy will meet with Premier Khrushchev in Vienna next week. He can be expected to warn that Soviet insistence on an inspection veto would imperil disarmament. Moscow said it would never sign a nuclear test ban agreement that failed to bar all nuclear explosions for all time. (Page 1, Col. 1)

On Laos, heavy fighting raged near Padong. (1:2)

The United Nations reported that "immediate outside support" was needed to save the virtually bankrupt Republic of the Congo. (1:5)

In South Korea the junta got the troops it wanted in exchange for the return of operational control of the Korean armed forces. This control is to be limited to defense against Communist aggression. (1:1)

The tractors-for-prisoners exchange with Cuba came under sharp attack from Republican Congressional leaders. An increasing volume of mail denouncing the exchange had been reported. (1:3)

The Cuban invasion failure came up at a news conference. McNamara took full responsibility and expressed confidence in the Joint Chiefs of Staff. (1:4)

The President submitted to Congress his plan to consolidate the principal foreign economic aid programs into a single State Department agency. (1:8)

The Administration cut the F.H.A. interest rate ceiling to 5 ’%. It is hoped that will act as a lever and that rates will shortly go down. (1:7)

Jackson, Miss. Freedom Riders found guilty of breach of the peace and were given 60-day suspended jail terms. Montgomery Ala. Freedom Riders were released from jail in $1,000 bail each. (1:6)

The Government got a no-strike, no lock-out pledge from labor and management in missile-based building. (1:7)

Korean junta chief seeking wider U.S. aid. Page 3

7,000 will take Peace Corps test today.

Texans will elect a Senator today. Page 24

Space scientists chart U.S. program for 60’s. Page 10

May 28, 1961

The United States issued a detailed indictment of the Communists at Geneva yesterday. It charged them with a "cynical disregard" of the cease-fire and listed at least thirty breaches of the truce agreement involving Laos. (1:8)

Communist Albania sentenced to death four opponents of the party chief, on charges of plotting an armed uprising with the aid of the United States Sixth Fleet, Greece and Yugoslavia. (1:6)

The Cuban Government announced that three of the prisoners taken in last month’s invasion would be put to death, for the killing of an aid of Premier Castro. The ten paroled prisoner-negotiators in the tractor exchange proposal returned to Havana and were questioned by Premier Castro. (1:7)

President Duvalier is tightening his grip on Haiti. He has paralyzed the army, intimidated the merchant class, routed all student opponents and deported or jailed others who might threaten his rule. (1:6-7)

President Kennedy will offer Congress a plan for an independent peace agency that would bring together interrelated problems of disarmament, diplomatic, military, scientific and economic. (1:4)

The President put his signature on a bill providing $600,000,000 in special aid to Latin America. (1:5)

Montgomery Freedom Riders staged a brief hunger strike in jail as they awaited trial, and in Jackson, 26 refused to pay fines and remained in jail. (1:2)

Cuban underground movement quits exile council. (pg. 3)

Denmark still opposes Norstad plan for NATO. (pg. 20)

Democrats mark Kennedy birthday in capital. (pg. 1)

President indicates confidence in Joint Chiefs. (pg. 39)

Unions press drive to organize California farms. (pg.33)

May 29, 1961

The United States reported to have undertaken new measures to impose Communist infiltration from Laos into South Vietnam and eventually Thailand. The Vietnamese have begun to put into effect a system of village-based anti-guerilla operations. Arrangements also have been made to strengthen Thailand’s anti-guerilla capabilities on her long, exposed border with Laos. (1:8)

South Korea outlawed 834 newspapers and news agencies and arrested twenty-five business men and former military officers and government officials. The officials were accused of illicit accumulation of wealth. (5:4)

President Kennedy confirmed that Adlai E. Stevenson will leave soon on a three-week tour of South America. (1:6-7)

The President’s efforts to encourage the education of Africans bore fruit. A major scholarship program that will provide educations for African students at top 150 American colleges was announced. (1:7)

Cuban exile quarrels reach critical state. Page 6

Brazil spurs rise in trade with Red bloc. Page 7

1,000 police to guard President here tomorrow. Page 3

Apparently prompted by intelligence reports of a breathtaking Soviet effort in oceanographic research, the Navy has planned a ten-year, $900,000,000 program to study, among other things, currents, acoustics, magnetics, gravity and sea ice. (1:1)

Owen Brennan, vice president of Teamsters, died. Page 19

Administration economists watch recovery pace. Page 23

May 30, 1961

The Kennedy Administration moved to the offensive yesterday to convince its Congressional and other critics that the proposed exchange of tractors for captive Cuban rebels was morally sound and politically wise. (1, Col. 1)

The Western powers warned the Soviet delegation in Geneva that an attempt to reopen the international conference on Laos could not proceed until new instructions shad been sent to the International Control Commission to verify a ceasefire in Laos and prevent its further violation by pro-Communist troops. (1:3)

Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy asked the Interstate Commerce Commission to adopt stringent regulations against racial segregation on interstate buses and in terminals serving them. (1:8; Text, 7)

An Administration program, one for training workers, to equip the unemployed to find jobs and to help the employed hold theirs, was sent to Congress. (14:3)

The President addressed 5,000 Democrats at a dinner in Boston in honor of his forty-fourth birthday. (1:6)

Korea junta studies suspension of Constitution. (2)

Iran’s peasants eager for land reform. (2)

Williams bids unions increase aid to Africa. (4)

West offers to reduce nuclear inspections. (5)

Kennedy’s bid on propaganda funds is cut. (4)

Kennedy vetoes first bill, on veterans’ pensions. (6)

Airlines urge air traffic control agency. (32)

May 31, 1961

Shortly before his departure for conference abroad, President Kennedy stopped in New York yesterday to confer with Premier Ben-Gurion of Israel and to address a charity dinner. (1, Cols. 6-7)

Mr. Kennedy will arrive in Paris today for talks with President de Gaulle. (1:7)

Parisians were awaiting the visit with particular interest in the new First Lady of the United States, who has French ancestors and can also speak French. (5:3-4)

Premier Khrushchev, en route to his weekend meeting in Vienna with President Kennedy, will arrive today in the Slovak city of Bratislava for talks with the Communist leaders of Czechoslovakia and Hungary. (3:6)

The international conference on Laos continued in recess as Moscow demanded that the first order of business be Soviet proposals for Laotian neutrality and not United States protests over continuing violations of the cease-fire in Laos. (1:4)

Premier Salazar proposed that the United States and Portugal seek an "understanding" above their divergent policies over Africa. (1:5; Text, 12)

President Kennedy is expected to establish a limited-warfare unit at the Pentagon to handle a variety of unorthodox military operations. The unit is based on recommendations by Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor. (1:2-3)

Two hours before President Kennedy’s jet took off from New York for Paris at 10:30 P.M., the President spoke to 1,500 guests.