1-7 | 8-14 | 15-21 | 22-30

September 1, 1961

The White House declared yesterday that the Soviet Union’s decision to resume nuclear weapons testing was "primarily a form of atomic blackmail, designed to substitute terror for reason." The statement, which was issued after a meeting of President Kennedy and the National Security Council with Congressional leaders of both parties, expressed confidence that the size and capabilities of the nation’s nuclear weapons stockpile were wholly adequate for the defense of the free world. The statement apparently reflected a high level decision to delay a U.S. resumption of nuclear testes at least until world indignation against Moscow had run its course. (1:8)

Washington was preoccupied and in large measure puzzled by the motives behind the Soviet decision. The predominant, but by no means unanimous, view was that the military necessity of catching up with the United States in nuclear development coincided with an opportunity to terrorize the world in the midst of the Berlin dispute. (1:8)

A number of United Nations delegations, including some neutralists, described Moscow’s announcement as the "worst Soviet blunder" since the Russians crushed the 1956 Hungarian revolt. (3:6)

Shock and concern were voiced in Western capitals. British officials said that the Soviet Government appeared to be trying to frighten the uncommitted nations into new demands for an East-West settlement, with heavy Western concessions if necessary. (1:7; Text, 3)

Congress passed the foreign aid bill and sent it to the White House. The bill authorizes assistance appropriations of $4,253,500 during the current fiscal year as well as appropriations of $6,000,000,000 for the development loan program for the fiscal years 1963 through 1966. While President Kennedy was denied Treasury-borrowing authority, the bill empowers him to enter into long-term commitments subject only to annual appropriation by Congress. (1:2-3)

In the wake of House rejection of a compromise school-aid bill, strong doubts arose over prospects for reviving Mr. Kennedy’s program next year. (14:5)

In the desegregation controversy, sixty Federal marshals have been ordered to New Orleans on stand-by duty for the opening of public schools next week. (18:1)

Red China hails Soviet nuclear test move. (3)

U.N. diplomats protest racial prejudice here. (N.Y.) (8)

Senate approves water conversion program. (10)

Senate sets hearing on military men’s speeches. (11)

September 2, 1961

The White House announced that the Soviet Union had resumed nuclear weapons testing early yesterday by exploding a device over Soviet Central Asia. A White House spokesman said the explosion two days after Moscow had announced it would resume tests "didn’t come as a surprise" and was detected by long-range United States equipment. The announcement described the device as having had "a substantial yield in the intermediate range," not in the range of a megaton. (1:8)

Premier Khrushchev was quoted as having declared that the testing was resumed in order to shock the Western powers into negotiations on Germany and disarmament. (1:6)

British sources said, however, that Moscow’s decision would not cause any change in the loose timetable the Western powers expect to use in moving toward negotiations on Berlin. The initial sounding on East-West talks is expected early next week. (4:1)

Moscow’s decision to resume the tests was denounced by President Nasser of the United Arab Republic. At the opening session of the conference of nonaligned nations in Belgrade, he said the world was moving closer to the brink of disaster and he urged an immediate summit conference to save the peace. (1:7; Excerpts, 2)

The United States dug deep into its archives for more evidence to support the Western powers’ right to fly civilian planes over East Germany to West Berlin. The State Department published a translation of a 1947 Soviet document that deals with the issue. (1:5; Text, 5)

Vice President Joao Goulart returned to Brazilian soil to take over the Presidency despite opposition by military leaders. (1:3)

All seventy-eight persons aboard a Trans World Airlines Constellation were killed when it plunged soon after take-off into a cornfield twenty miles west of Chicago. The propeller-driven craft had flown from Boston via New York and Pittsburgh and was bound for Las Vegas, Los Angeles and San Francisco. Federal aviation officials said that there was nothing so far to indicate an explosion in the air but that the plane had swooped to earth fast at a steep angle. (1:1)

Eero Saarinen, the noted architect, died at Ann Arbor, Mich., a day after a brain tumor operation. His age was 51. (15:1)

The House Appropriations Committee approved cuts in foreign aid funds that left Administration officials stunned and angry. Despite Administration appeals, the total cut now stands at $1,405,000,000, almost 30 per cent of President Kennedy’s original request of $4,762,500,000. (1:4)

Mr. Kennedy pledged that he would assign the "highest priority" in next year’s Congressional session to a program of Social Security medical care for the aged. (1:2)

Governor Rockefeller called a meeting of the Civil Defense Committee of the Governors’ Conference to discuss fall-out shelters and other civil defense problems. The meeting, which will be held in Washington Sept. 17, was apparently scheduled because of Moscow’s decision to resume nuclear weapons tests. (1:8)

As the Labor Day weekend got under way, President Kennedy issued a plea for "patience and a clear head" on the nation’s highways. (1:2)

W.Z. Foster, former head of U.S. Communists died. (15)

September 3, 1961

Prime Minister Nehru of India declared yesterday that the Soviet decision to resume nuclear weapons tests had brought the danger of war nearer. Addressing the conference of nonaligned nations in Belgrade, Mr. Nehru said there was no more urgent business in the world than a resumption of United States-Soviet negotiations. President Nkrumah of Ghana told the conferees that the Soviet action was a shock to him. (1:8; Excerpts, 2)

In the most violent speech at the two-day old conference, Cuba’s President urged a condemnation of the United States for a policy of "imperialism, colonialism and neocolonialism" in Latin America. (3:1)

The United States hopes to initiate diplomatic moves that will plant a vivid contrast between Moscow and Washington on disarmament. The Administration was reported to be preparing a speech for President Kennedy to deliver before the United Nations General Assembly in which he will accuse Moscow of having negotiated in bad faith for a nuclear test ban. (1:6-7)

The Defense Department announced, meanwhile, that seventy-two jet fighters were being dispatched to Europe for Allied war games. The NATO maneuvers will take place Sept. 12 to 14, but the four squadrons may be kept there afterward. (1:7)

Communist East Germany has delivered a note to the United States Embassy in Prague, protesting the movement of 1,500 American troops to West Berlin as "provocative." (4:1)

Moscow’s resumption of nuclear testing and Premier Khrushchev’s talk of building 100-megaton bombs has intensified a mounting demand by Americans for all-out shelter information. The Administration is now studying a plan for distributing up to 100,000,000 copies of a Civil Defense informational booklet. (7:1)

President Kennedy appealed to Congress to restore the $896,000,000 it had cut from the foreign aid authorization bill. He declared that "countless billions" for military defense would not insure the nation’s security if it failed to help the world’s "hungry and impoverished" people to a better life. (1:5)

One of President Kennedy’s campaign promises was fulfilled, though somewhat modified. The wages of 2,500,000 low-paid workers rose and amendments to the minimum wage law took effect. (36:1)

Racial barriers are falling in the last of the major areas of "moderate" persuasion, Atlanta and Dallas, but virtually all of the Old South’s rural areas have yet to be touched. (44:1)

In Virginia, however, the collapse of "massive resistance" will be apparent this week when more than 500 Negro children take their places next to white children in public schools scattered across the state. (43:1)

Atom test gives Soviet set-back in Mid-east. (3)

Soviets to open huge exhibition in Paris. (9)

Kennedy won "great debates," study indicates. (40)

U.S. to fly whole camp to the Antarctic. (7)

September 4, 1961

Acting with what was described as "great urgency," President Kennedy and Prime Minister Macmillan proposed to Premier Khrushchev yesterday that their Governments voluntarily refrain from nuclear weapons tests that "take place in the atmosphere and produce radioactive fall-out." The President and the Prime Minister said their purpose was "to protect mankind from the increasing hazards from atmospheric pollution." They emphasized they were not calling for additional means of policing an agreement to suspend tests in the atmosphere and that they were prepared to rely on existing means of detection. The note said representatives of the three Governments could meet in Geneva Saturday to record the agreement. (1:8; Text, 3)

An appeal for a world disarmament conference as a means of halting the nuclear weapons race was made by President Tito at the Belgrade conference on nonaligned nations. (1:6-7; Excerpts, 2)

In Leopoldville, it became known that the Congo would also be represented at the Belgrade conference. Antoine Gizenga reversed his position and joined Premier Adoula on a flight to the Yugoslav capital. (2:7-8)

Soviet notes to the Western powers, published yesterday, dealt with air access to West Berlin. Moscow challenged the Western right to unrestricted air access and insisted that the Western Allies limit the civilian use of the three air corridors to traffic acceptable to the Communists. (1:5; Text 3)

Another Soviet note, this one to Premier Fanfani of Italy, reaffirmed Premier Khrushchev’s readiness to negotiate with the West on Berlin at any time. (1:6)

As the West girds for the Berlin crisis, the United States is adding 3,000 more men to its armed forces in Europe. (1:6-7)

The White House will send an investigation team to Okinawa soon. The specialists will look into long-standing complaints that the United States has been tight-fisted with economic aid to the island despite its strategic importance. (1:7-8)

September 5, 1961

Another atomic fireball burst in the sky over Central Asia early yesterday, Washington reported. The Atomic Energy Commission said it was the second Soviet nuclear explosion in seventy-two hours. Both followed Moscow’s announcement that atmospheric nuclear tests were being resumed after a pause of nearly three years. Cautiously, United States official said the new blast did not necessarily mean that the Russians were rejecting the United States-British call for a new voluntary halt in such tests. (1:8)

United States-Soviet relations grew still worse with the Russian disclosure that a young American tourist, Marvin W. MacKinnon, was under arrest and facing trial on espionage charges. (1:6-7)

Leaders of twenty-four nonaligned delegations meeting in Belgrade formally approved an appeal to President Kennedy and Premier Khrushchev to meet without delay to try to avert World War III. (1:5)

An East European source hinted in Belgrade that a powerful Soviet military clique had arisen and had joined others in criticizing Premier Khrushchev for weakness on Berlin and other issues. He implied that Mr. Khrushchev’s tough new line was designed to offset this challenge. (5:1)

From the nation’s major cities, all potential target areas, civil defense officials report an increase in the citizen’s fear of nuclear war and his efforts to try to survive any atomic attack. Despite some apathy, the self-preservation instinct has led many to inquire about protection and survival procedures. (28:3)

A "decade of development" abroad was forecast by President Kennedy as he signed a bill authorizing $4,253,500,000 in foreign aid and allowing him to commit $7,200,000,000 for development loans in the next five years. (21:1)

Congressional wind-up operations on the remnants of the President’s legislative program will begin today with attention centered on renewal of existing education aid and appropriation of foreign aid funds for the coming year. These, and the Senate’s perennial debate on filibusters, are about all that stand in the way of adjournment, possibly by the week-end. (1:4-5)

4,000,000 Americans, on the Social Security rolls, will benefit from an automatic increase under the liberalized law voted earlier this year. (71:4)

Kennedy pleads for greater fitness in youth. (37)

September 6, 1961

Just a few hours after the United States detected the third Soviet nuclear test in five days, President Kennedy yesterday ordered a resumption of American tests. Unlike the Russian blasts, which have been atmospheric, the President said this country’s would be "in the laboratory and underground, with no fall out." Mr. Kennedy said the United States had striven for a test ban but now had no choice to end the voluntary moratorium. (1:8)

The Russians indicated they would reject the United States-British proposal for an immediate ban on atmospheric blasts. (1:7)

The Belgrade meeting of nonaligned powers ended by urging President Kennedy and Premier Khrushchev to start immediate negotiations to "establish a safe peace." Statesmen were to go from the conference to Washington and Moscow to support the appeal. (1:5)

The United States, however, was expected to rule out the plea for summit talks on Berlin at this time. (5:3)

A Soviet tribunal sentenced an American student, Mervin W. Makinen, to eight years’ imprisonment for espionage. The Russians said he had confessed. (1:4)

In Berlin, American soldiers hurled tear gas grenades across the border at East German policemen after the Communists had sprayed them with water. (1:7-8)

President de Gaulle called for firm Western resistance, including force, against the Soviet "totalitarian empire" as the best service to peace. Any Western weakness, he said, would only spurt the Soviet appetite, without averting war. (1:6-7)

The House passed and sent to the Senate a $3,657,500,000 foreign aid appropriation bill. It was $1,105,000,000 short of the President’s "rock bottom figure" and $596,000,000 less than the amount authorized by Congress. However, $300,000,000 in previously cut military aid was restored. (1:3)

President Kennedy urged the United Automobile Workers and the General Motors Corporation to achieve a "just" contract settlement and avoid a strike today. He said the country could "ill afford a shutdown" at this critical time. (1:2)

In New Orleans, the Justice Department sought a court order that would close a school in a nearby parish that was used by white students boycotting two desegregated New Orleans schools. (21:3)

U.S.-financed hospital started in Poland. (18)

September 7, 1961

The United States announced last night that the Soviet Union had detonated the fourth nuclear device in the atmosphere in the last six days. The explosion was reported to have been in the low to intermediate range and to have taken place east of Stalingrad. (1:8)

Premier Khrushchev was urged to take immediate action with President Kennedy to avert the danger of war. The appeal, in a letter from the Belgrade conference of nonaligned nations, was delivered in Moscow by Prime Minister Nehru of India and President Nkrumah of Ghana. (1:7; Text of conference declaration, 8)

Letters from the Belgrade conferees urging a Khrushchev-Kennedy Meeting were also handed to the United States and Soviet Ambassadors in Belgrade by President Tito of Yugoslavia. (8:3-4)

In Brussels, Secretary of Agriculture Freeman warned that the United States would have "grave reservations" if the European Common Market restricted imports of American farm products. (1:7)

The Pentagon ordered intensified "combat readiness" training for 148,000 members of the military reserves, including four Army National Guard divisions. The divisions as well as 475 smaller Army National Guard and Reserve units were thus put on notice of a possible call to active duty. (1:5)

Secretary of Defense McNamara told a Senate inquiry that Maj. Gen. Edwin A. Walker, who was relieved of his command in Europe earlier this year, had violated a criminal statute in trying to influence the outcome of an election through political indoctrination of his troops. (1:6)

The House approved the continuation without change of two expiring educational programs. The $9,000,000,000 extension bill was passed by a vote of 378 to 32 after a brief debate devoted largely to recriminations over the defeat of President Kenney’s broad aid-to-education program. (30:4)

In the wake of five years of legislation, racial integration of public schools in Dallas, Tex., began in a serene atmosphere. (1:2)

A tentative economic agreement between the General Motors Corporation and the United Auto Workers averted a major strike. (1:4)

Japan scores U.S. on tests; Britain approves. (3)

McCloy and Zorin resume arms-issue talks. (3)

All bills to increase House membership killed. (20)

September 8, 1961

Mayor Wagner, running on an "anti-Boss" platform, scored a smashing upset victory in yesterday’s Democratic primary. (1:8)

James S. Lanigan, a 43-year-old lawyer, knocked Carmine G. De Sapio out of the Democratic leadership in the Greenwich Village area that has been the base of the Tammany leader’s power. (1:5)

In politically turbulent Harlem, the Wagner forces fashioned a series of stunning victories over Tammany Hall. The results were also a setback for Rep. Adam Clayton Powell Jr. (24:6-7)

In a long interview Premier Khrushchev has expressed readiness to meet again with President Kennedy in another effort "to resolve pressing international problems." He expressed the hope that such a meeting could be "fruitful" and that both sides "will display understanding." The Soviet leader, assuming a tough, relentless attitude, indicated supreme confidence that he could win the present test of iron wills without recourse to war. (1:2-4; Excerpts, 11)

A two-and-a-half-hour talk at the Kremlin yesterday between Mr. Khrushchev and Prime Minister Nehru left the Indian leader pessimistic. "Once again the foul winds of war are blowing," he declared. "There are atomic tests and the world grows fearful." (1:3)

In Washington, a leading Government official warned that any interference with the West’s essential rights in Berlin would be "the straw that breaks the camel’s back." The authoritative, tough speech was made by Paul H. Nitze, an Assistant Secretary of Defense. (1:4; Excerpts, 2)

President Kennedy asked Congress to permit the training of France’s NATO forces in the use of nuclear weapons. As his message went to the legislators, the Defense Department announced that a paratroop battle group would be flown to Europe this weekend to take part in NATO exercises. (1:2)

President Kennedy has warned steel industry leaders that a price increase might require the Government to apply brakes to the economy that would retard recovery, keep unemployment high and hamper growth. As the President’s letter was made public, a group of Republican Senator assailed what one called "psychological price control." (1:1; Text of letter 14)

Landis resigns as a White House adviser. (64)

Admiral DeWitt C. Ramsey, led Pacific Fleet. (31)

September 9, 1961

The Western Powers gave Moscow another solemn warning yesterday against interference with their flights across East Germany to Berlin. Parallel notes by the United States, Britain and France, delivered in Moscow, repeated the West’s admonition that any change in the present situation in Berlin would be interpreted as "aggressive action." (1:1; Text, 2)

Premier Khrushchev stipulated that East-West negotiations on Berlin must be held soon and must result in a German peace treaty. Ignoring an earlier plea by his guest, Prime Minister Nehru, the Soviet leader rejected as a "propaganda device" the United States-British proposal for a ban on nuclear testing in the atmosphere. (1:2-3)

The Kennedy Administration was not particularly heartened by Mr. Khrushchev’s new offers to negotiate with the West amid boasts that he was diplomatically and militarily strong enough to negotiate on his terms. (2:1)

United States concern about its own military posture was reflected by growing indications that it was preparing to send up to 38,000 troops to bolster its forces in Western Europe. (1:2)

President Bourguiba of Tunisia proposed to settle the Bizerte dispute by an agreement permitting France to retain the base during the Berlin crisis. (1:4)

The Senate approved a modified version of President Kennedy’s bill to set up a disarmament agency to seek ways to smooth the path to ultimate world peace. The roll call vote was 73 to 14. (1:5)

Pentagon orders investigation of Paar incident. (3)

U.S. and Japan set new textile pact. (26)

September 10, 1961

Premier Khrushchev declared yesterday that nuclear testing could be ended only by Western acceptance of the Soviet proposals for a German peace treaty and by complete disarmament. He laid down these conditions in a message to President Kennedy and Prime Minister Macmillan that rejected their proposal for a prohibition on nuclear testing in the atmosphere. Western Diplomats in Moscow expressed the view that the Soviet leader had renewed nuclear testing as one of a number of military measures directed at pressuring the West into accepting his terms for a German settlement. (1:8; Excerpts, 16)

In a joint Statement, President Kennedy and Prime Minister Macmillan expressed "deepest regret" over Mr. Khrushchev’s reply. They said it contrasted sharply with Moscow’s "repeated expressions of concern as to the health hazards of such testing." (1:6-7)

The nuclear test ban conference in Geneva recessed indefinitely. (18:1)

To cope with the Berlin situation and other trouble spots, the United States will send about 40,000 Army troops to Europe "in the immediate future." (1:6-7)

Britain announced she would assemble a reserve division, maintain it at "a high state of readiness" and send it to West Germany if the crisis worsens. (5:1)

The Soviet Union also is increasing the strength of its armed forces, both in East Germany and within its own boarders. The size of the increase has not been determined because of strong security measures. (6:1-2)

The Communist Warsaw Pact countries announced they too were strengthening their military defenses. Toss reported the decision had been made at a two-day meeting in Warsaw. (1:7)

President de Gaulle and his entourage escaped unscathed from an assassination attempt. (1:5)

The Civil Rights Commission recommended that Congress outlaw all voter-qualification tests not related to age, residence, imprisonment or conviction for felony. The recommendation, which would mean a sweeping revision of state voting laws throughout the country, was endorsed by four of the six commission members. Another major recommendation to emerge from the group’s study of discriminatory voting practices in the South was a unanimous request to Congress to declare a sixth-grade education sufficient to qualify voters under state "literacy" tests. (1:1; Text, 68)

It became known that George D. Wood, a Republican financier and chairman of one of the country’s leading securities houses, had been asked to head the new Agency for International Development. Mr. Woods was a figure in the Dixon-Yates power controversy in the early Nineteen Fifties. (1:5-6)

A principal White House aide testified that President Kennedy was making much less use of the National Security Council than his immediate predecessors did. (46:1)

A Presidential task force urged the airlines to try more air-bus and other low-fare experiences to attract the 85 to 90 per cent of the population that does not fly. The group also recommended that the Civil Aeronautics Board encourage airline mergers where they would strengthen weak lines and uneconomical competition. (41:1)

Two Army officers censured for Paar show. (1)

U.S. favors increasing World Monetary Fund. (10)

U.S. tops Soviet Union 60 per cent in farm output. (86)

September 11, 1961

The Soviet Union opened early yesterday what was believed to be the second series in its current nuclear tests, detonating a megaton-range device in the Arctic. Such a device has an explosive power equivalent to the force of 1,000,000 tons of TNT. The Atomic Energy Commission said that the blast had produced a yield "on the order of several megatons." Last night the commission announced that the Russians had detonated another nuclear explosion in the Arctic, the sixth since Moscow resumed the tests ten days ago. The explosive force of the last blast was reported to be "in the low to intermediate kiloton range." (1:8)

The Soviet Government announced that it would test fire a series of "more powerful and improved rockets" into the central Pacific between Sept. 13 and Oct. 15. (2:3)

These developments were pondered by Western diplomats in the context of remarks by Premier Khrushchev in a speech in Stalingrad. He said he saw an "encouraging glimmer of hope" for negotiations with the West on Berlin and Germany. (1:7)

What appeared to be a partial mobilization of the Polish armed forces was announced by Wladyslaw Gomulka. (2:2)

The feverish summer has seen the mood in Britain alter from escapism and apathy toward a resolute acceptance of the dangers of "Khrushchev’s crisis" and the need to stand firmly over Berlin. (3:3-4)

The Secretary of the Army has warmly endorsed a plan to create special, all purpose military units that could be sent to underdeveloped countries to help in peacetime projects as well as to bolster defenses. The project, in effect a military counterpart to the civilian Peace Corps, would concentrate, however, on aid to countries in danger of Communist aggression. (12:1)

Paar denies asking for troops for Berlin show. (4)

U.S. attitude in crisis gains friends in Brazil. (11)

Kennedy alerts agencies on Gulf Coast storm. (19)

September 12, 1961

The Russians told the Western Big Three yesterday that all foreigners wishing to enter East Berlin and East Germany must make arrangements with the East German regime. In notes to the Allied Ambassadors in Bonn, the Soviet envoy to East Germany rejected their demand that the Russians guarantee the access rights of foreigners under the Berlin occupation statute. (1:1)

United States officials viewed Moscow’s intensive nuclear test series as an attempt to development an improved arsenal, ranging from small tactical warheads to 100-megaton warheads for intercontinental missiles. (1:2)

Presidents Sukarno of Indonesia and Keith of Mali are due in Washington today with an appeal by uncommitted nations for East-West summit talks to avert a nuclear war. President Kennedy will meet them with pomp and cordiality, coupled with firmness against any calls for unilateral concessions by the United States. (1:2-3)

A quarter of a million workers at more than ninety General Motors plants walked out in a dispute over plant work rules. (1:8)

Hurricane Carla, the fiercest of the century, struck the Texas coast at the Matagorda Bay and roared inland. Lashing out with 173-mile-an-hour winds and piling up 10-foot tides, the storm sideswiped 500 miles of coastal plains from Cameron, La., to Corpus Christi, Tex., but no deaths were reported. Hundreds of thousands of residents had fled, leaving towns nearly deserted. (1:4)

A major Senate contest seemed imminent over President Kennedy’s appointment of George D. Woods, chairman of the First Boston Corporation, who figured in the Dixon-Yates controversy, as administrator of foreign aid to replace Henry R. Labouisse. (1:7)

Former President Eisenhower said his Administration had no plans for a Cuban invasion. His disclaimer contrasted sharply with private statements by officials of his own and the new Administration. (1:2-3)

U.S. and Soviet scientists study disarmament. (3)

Broad Federal aid to schools set as 1962 aim. (22)

U.S. aid to World’s Fair opposed in Senate. (35)

September 13, 1961

In a gesture usually reserved for state visits, President Kennedy went to Andrews Air Force base yesterday to greet Presidents Sukarno of Indonesia and Keita of Mali. The two statesmen came not as official guests but as special envoys to tell Mr. Kennedy "the thoughts and concerns" of the Belgrade conference of nonaligned nations. In essence, this meant an appeal for East-West summit talks to avert war. (1:8)

Later, Washington announced that the Russians had set off the seventh nuclear device in their current test series. Experts believe it was a hydrogen bomb. (1:6-7)

The United States rejected the Soviet demand that foreigners wishing to enter East Berlin or East Germany get permission from the East Germans. (1:7)

A two-year extension of two Federal education aid programs was approved by the Senate, which turned down a Presidential plea to limit the extension to one year. The programs aid college students and schools in areas with high concentrations of Federal personnel. The President wanted only one-year extensions so that the two could be tied into broader education aid measure next year. (1:1)

Congress sent the White House a bill authorizing $30,000,000 for a three-year drive against juvenile crime. The emphasis will be on helping unemployed youths. (30:5)

Korean junta chief to visit Kennedy. (2)

"Checkmate" test of NATO command begins. (8)

U.S. fears a loss in Afghanistan crisis. (22)

September 14, 1961

With a dawn attack that brought fierce street-fighting, United Nations troops yesterday seized control of the capital of Katanga. The unexpected action was followed immediately by a U.N. declaration that the province’s fourteen-month self-proclaimed independence from the central Congolese Government had ended. (1:8)

The Atomic Energy Commission announced that the Soviet Union had set off two more nuclear explosions, both in the low-to-intermediate range. (1:7)

President Kennedy made it clear to two neutralist leaders that he was not prepared to enter summit talks with Premier Khrushchev until "they can serve a useful purpose." Mr. Kennedy told Presidents Sukarno of Indonesia and Keita of Mali that while the West was not prepared to yield to Soviet demands on Berlin and Germany, it was ready to discuss these issues through regular diplomatic procedures. (1:5; Text, 3)

The United States will ask its allies this week-end to join it in a gradual effort to negotiate an accommodation with the Soviet Union on Berlin and Germany. A meeting of the Western foreign ministers opens in Washington today. (1:6-7)

A Mercury capsule, occupied by robot devices able to breathe, perspire and talk was launched by the United States and brought back safely after one orbit around the earth. Although officials said at least one more test would have to be made before a human would be launched on orbital flight, the achievement kept alive hopes that the United States might send a man into orbit by the end of the year. (1:1)

The Senate Appropriations Committee restored all but a small fraction of the House cuts in foreign aid funds and cleared the way for a vote on the bill tomorrow. (1:4)

Three bills aimed at curbing organized crime and racketeering were signed by Mr. Kennedy at a White House ceremony. (16:4)

The United States Steel Corporation told the President that its concern about inflation was no less than his but that steel prices and profits were not the cause. In a letter, the company chided Mr. Kennedy for his efforts to forestall a priced increase and declared that his economic advisers "seem to be assuming the role of informal price setters for steel." (1:1; Text, 18)

U.S. will shelve Polish aid request. (5)

September 15, 1961

The Soviet Union announced last night that Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko would meet in New York with Secretary of State Rusk for an exchange of views on Berlin and Germany. The ministers, who will confer during the United Nations General Assembly session which opens Tuesday, will seek to establish a basis, date and forum for the start of East-West negotiations on a German settlement. (1:8; Text 4)

Mr. Rusk and the foreign ministers of Britain and France opened a three-day conference in Washington with broad discussions of the situations in Berlin, Laos and the Congo. There was no official statement, but it was understood that the Allies had reviewed emergency plans to meet further Communist harassment or challenge in Berlin and the rest of Germany. (1:7)

Another announcement by Moscow reported the successful flight of a new and more powerful multistage carrier rocket into the central Pacific. Toss said the rocket had traveled a distance of about 7,500 miles. Washington reported that the Soviet Union had detonated another nuclear device. (1:4)

The United States has prepared a plan to postpone for one more year the issue of admitting Communist China to the United Nations. The plan calls for a special committee to consider the issue along with the question of enlarging the Security Council and the Economic and Social Council. (1:5)

President Kennedy has set up a Cabinet-level group to give him a program for combating Communist techniques in "cold war" psychology. The study group was created because of the Communists’ apparent ability to soften world reaction unfavorable to them and to dominate the news with demonstrations that seem spontaneous. (1:8)

The floating hospital and medical ship Hope returned to San Francisco after a year of service to the people of Indonesia and South Vietnam. (1:2-4)

President Kennedy told the president of the steel workers union that "we count on all concerned" to keep steel prices stable. David J. McDonald, the union’s president, had written Mr. Kennedy of his union’s "wholehearted acceptance" of the view that next year’s wage contract should consider the public interest as well as the needs of the workers and stockholders. (1:1)

Secretary of Labor Goldberg made an appeal in behalf of the President for a speedy settlement of the four-day strike of more than 250,000 General Motors workers. (15:1)

The Administration won House approval of its bill to give permanent status to the Peace Corps. The bill authorizes appropriations of the full $40,000,000 sought by Mr. Kennedy for the first year. (1:3)

House unit backs rise in lead and zinc tariff. (45)

September 16, 1961

The United States resumed atomic testing yesterday by setting off a small underground explosion in the Nevada desert. In announcing the explosion, President Kennedy said the United States was "forced reluctantly" to renew testing after nearly three years because the Soviet Union had "without warning, but after a great deal of preparation, resumed testing in the atmosphere." The announcement emphasized that the detonation had "produced no fall out *** in marked contrast" to the ten recent Soviet tests. (1:8; Text, 6)

Mr. Kennedy coupled his announcement of a nuclear test resumption with a declaration that the United States "once again affirms its readiness to negotiate a controlled test-ban agreement of the widest possible scope." At the same time it became known that the United States would lay before the United Nations a plan for general and complete disarmament in which the neutral nations would be assigned a considerable inspection role. The President may outline the plan before the General Assembly next Thursday. (1:6)

The United States reported that East Germany was planning "the arrest and mass deportation" of East German citizens living on the Berlin border and in areas bordering West Germany. Washington also asserted that East Germany, with Soviet backing, planned to seal the intracity border in Berlin during the deportation period. (1:6-7)

The Western powers, meanwhile, have warned Moscow that further unilateral action in Berlin and Germany will destroy all hope of East-West negotiations for a peaceful solution. President Kennedy said that Soviet restraint was of the "utmost importance." (1:5; Text, 2)

President Keita of Mali expressed view that world problems could be settled if Premier Khrushchev showed the same spirit of goodwill demonstrated by Mr. Kennedy this week in talks with Mr. Keita and President Sukarno of Indonesia. (2:8)

In Turkey, former Premier Menderes and two of his ministers were sentenced to death for violating the Constitution. (1:7)

By a vote of 62 to 17, the Senate passed a $4,196,600,000 foreign aid appropriation bill, restoring all but a fraction of the money cut by the House. The measure goes to a Senate-House conference committee. (1:1)

The House dealt the Administration a sharp rebuff with a vote that had the effect of putting aside the $520,000,000 postal-rate increase bill. (1:1)

The Rev. Dr. Billy James Hargis, a Tulsa evangelist, disclosed that some conservative members of Congress and the leaders of some Right-wing organizations were forming a secret fraternity to coordinate their anti-Communist efforts. (8:2-4)

A judge in Jackson, Miss., gave four-month jail sentences to fifteen ministers who had attempted to dine together in a segregated restaurant. (1:2)

Chief Judge Louis E. Goodman of U.S. court died. (19)

United States to resume tax rulings on oil deals. (23)

September 17, 1961

The United States, expressing "deep concern" over the fighting in Katanga, urged that every effort be made to reach a cease-fire. (1:7)

The Atomic Energy Commission announced that both the United States and the Soviet Union had detonated nuclear tests. The United States test, fire underground in Nevada, will not produce radioactive fall-out, while the Soviet test, fired in the atmosphere over Siberia, will. (1:4)

The Western foreign ministers ended a three-day conference in Washington with a communiqué expressing agreement that an effort should be made to determine whether there was any "reasonable basis" for negotiations with Moscow on Berlin and Germany. (1:5; Text, 20)

Despite the angry diplomatic joust between East and West, so-called cultural exchanges between the two have continued without incident or interruption. Under two two-year agreements, the United States and the Soviet Union have exchanged nearly 600 projects or delegations. (1:2-3)

Former President Eisenhower declared that Americans were chagrined, puzzled, and disturbed by the Kennedy Administration’s handling of recent events. In his most vigorous assault to date on the new Administration, General Eisenhower accused it of "indecision and uncertainty" in dealing with the Cuban and Laotian disputes. And he said that the Democrats, with a two-to-one margin in Congress were unable to legislate because they "are at war with themselves." (1:1; Excerpts, 45)

President Kennedy nominated Charles Robert Ross, who is a Republican and chairman of the Vermont Public Service Board, to be a member of the Federal Power Commission. (46:4)

Congress sends Delaware compact to President. (1)

Rep. Overton Brooks, Louisiana Democrat dies. (87)

September 18, 1961

Unofficial final results of yesterday’s West German election indicated that Chancellor Adenauer’s Christian Democrats had lost their parliamentary majority. As a result Dr. Adenauer’s own political future was in doubt. The leader of the conservative Free Democratic Party, which won the balance of power, said he would do everything in his power to see that the next Government was headed by Ludwig Erhard, the Economics Minister in the present Cabinet. (1:8)

The Soviet Union declared it would destroy any West German fighter plane that strayed over East Germany and refused to comply with Communist orders to land. The warning was contained in parallel notes to the Western powers. (1:7; Text 9)

The French Government has told President Kennedy that it will not take part in any East-West conference on Berlin and Germany under present circumstances. The message was conveyed by Foreign Minister Couve de Murville. (1:6)

Nonetheless, Secretary of State Rusk flew to New York for what he considers crucial talks on these issues with Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko. Mr. Rusk wants to find out whether Moscow is ready for real negotiations leading to a new European settlement. (1:7)

The Atomic Energy Commission reported the twelfth Soviet nuclear test in the atmosphere since Sept. 1. (4:4-5)

The United States and the leading nations of Europe reached almost complete agreement on a plan to reinforce the world monetary system. The plan involves borrowing by the international Monetary Fund. (1:4)

All thirty-seven persons aboard an Electra airliner were killed when the turboprop craft lost power and crashed just outside O’Hare International Airport in Chicago. Twenty seconds after take-off the Northwest Orient Airlines liner began to wobble, its right wing dipped, struck a power line, and the plane hit the ground and burned. The flight had originated in Milwaukee and was bound for cities in Florida. (1:1)

Congress is expected to push to adjourn this week, leaving behind a half-dozen major Administration proposals. (1:2-3)

Bolivians score U.S. plan to sell tin. (45)

September 19, 1961

A peace mission ended in tragedy yesterday when Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld and twelve other persons died in a plane crash near their destination, Ndola, in Northern Rhodesia. Mr. Hammarskjöld was to meet there with President Tshombe of the Congo’s secessionist Katanga Province in the hope of ending bitter fighting between United Nations and Katanga troops. One man, a United Nations security guard, survived. He was reported to have said that explosions preceded the crash after Mr. Hammarskjöld had ordered the pilot to turn away from a landing at Ndola. (1:8)

President Kennedy planned to address the Assembly, probably Friday, to give assurances that the United States wants the Secretariat left unchanged. (1:6-7)

The East German Government announced that it had drafted a new law concerning defense. Its details were not disclosed, but military conscription was forecast. (5:5)

A remnant of President Kennedy’s school aid program was passed by the House and was sent to the President. Scarcely a token of what Mr. Kennedy wanted, the bill extends existing program for two years, the "impacted areas" program and the National Defense Education Act. (19:3)

Georgia’s first voluntary college desegregation began in Atlanta when three Negro students started the school year at Georgia Tech under heavy police guard. There were no disturbances. The school’s action was generally viewed as a move toward off a Federal decree that would regulate the administration’s racial policies. (21:2)

September 20, 1961

The drive to name Tunisian Delegate Mongi Slim as Acting Secretary General pending election of a successor met a snag. Mr. Slim, who is already slated to head the Assembly, felt that assuming the additional post would be difficult. In addition, the Russians declared that they would not accept an Acting Secretary General and that they would keep pressing for a three-member directorate. (1:8)

The Kennedy Administration found some hope amid the consternation brought on by Mr. Hammarskjöld's death. Officials saw a chance for the non-Communist nations to defeat Soviet moves to weaken the Secretariat. (11:2-3)

The Soviet newspaper Invested suggested that United Nations headquarters be shifted to West Berlin. Moscow indicated that it would support the move, if the West agreed to end the Allied occupation there. (1:6-7)

The nation’s defense build-up continued as the Pentagon called two National Guard Divisions and 249 smaller Guard and Army Reserve units to active duty. The divisions are the Forty-ninth Armored of Texas and the Thirty-second Infantry of Wisconsin.

A dispirited effort to put new curbs on the filibuster was abandoned in the Senate for lack of substantial support. A move to cut off debate and begin consideration of a new filibuster limitation failed to get even a simple majority when a two-thirds majority was needed. (1:2-3)

The F.H.A. acted to kill reports that it would raise its 5 ’ percent ceiling on mortgage interest rates. In fact, its chief said he hoped the mortgage money market would become easier. (60:1)

The space agency chose a site near Houston as the "command center" for its multi-billion-dollar program to send manned expeditions to the moon and then the planets. A $60,000,000 laboratory will be built on Rice University land. (6:3)

On instructions from President Kennedy, City Court Justice George Resling sought and obtained Mayor Wagner’s backing for appointment as a Federal judge, a clear sign that Mr. Kennedy regards the Mayor as the city’s Democratic spokesman on patronage. (19:1)

U.S. bocks entry of ex-Lumumba aide. (1)

U.S. sees start of Red drive in Vietnam. (2)

Kennedy welcomes Peruvian President. (12)

House votes to create arms control agency. (1)

Kennedy drops nomination of George Woods. (20)

September 21, 1961

After two days of negotiations shadowed by the death of Secretary General Hammarskjöld, President Moise Tshombe of Katanga and United Nations officials announced yesterday a provisional cease-fire agreement, to take effect at 12:01 A.M. today. The provisional agreement, which was reached after eight days of fighting between troops of Katanga Province and the United Nations, called for an exchange of prisoners. (1:8; Text 6)

Mongi Slim of Tunisia, who has been a leading figure in the United Nations since his country became a member in 1956, was elected President of the General Assembly by an overwhelming vote of 96 to 0 with one abstention. It was still uncertain whether he would be given the additional duties of Acting Secretary General. (1:6-7)

In a joint report to the General Assembly the United States and the Soviet Union said they had reached agreement on a broad set of principles that could help to get disarmament negotiations under way again after a fifteen-month hiatus. But the two countries reported failure in their efforts to agree on the forum for such talks. (1:5; Text 10)

In Washington, it became known that United States delegates to United Nations Assemblies probably would be almost exclusively professional diplomats. (11:1)

Premier Khrushchev voiced support of an appeal by Pope John for East-West negotiations to halt threats to peace. (1:7)

The East German Government adopted an enabling act giving it vast powers to mobilize East Germans in the event of a "defense emergency." (1:7)

The General Motors Corporation and the United Automobile Workers agreed on terms of a new three-year contract. But the union’s General Motors Council later voted to support continuation of local plant strikes until they are settled. (1:1)

President Kennedy nominated Fowler Hamilton, a New York lawyer, to be the administrator of the new foreign aid agency. (1:2)

D. Brainard Holmes, an executive with the Radio Corporation of America, was named to direct the United States’ manned expedition into space and to the moon. (1:3-4)

Kennedy chooses new Controller of Currency. (1)

Kennedy eases system on classifying documents. (11)

Robert Kennedy quits club over racial bias. (22)

September 22, 1961

Over Communist protests, the Steering Committee of the United Nations General Assembly approved yesterday a United States-British proposal for urgent debate on a treaty to ban nuclear tests under effective international control. The vote was 16 to 3, with the Soviet Union, Bulgaria and Czechoslovakia in opposition and France abstaining. The committee also recommended debate on Chinese representation in the United Nations. (1:8)

The White House announced that President Kennedy would address the General Assembly on Monday. Sources said that the speech would be concerned primarily with disarmament, Berlin and strengthening the United Nations. (1:6-7)

After eight days of bitter fighting, the cease fire in Katanga Province brought a welcome, though uneasy and tense, quiet in Elisabethville. (1:8)

Against a background of serious questions over the wisdom of the United Nations military intervention in Katanga, it became known that Dr. Conor Cruise O’Brien was being recalled from his post as the U.N. representative in the troubled province. (1:7)

The Soviet Union told the United States it was standing firm on its demand for a peace treaty with East Germany and a Berlin settlement on the basis of such a treaty. Reliable sources said that Moscow’s position was outlined by Foreign Minister Gromyko in a talk with Secretary of State Rusk. (1:4)

Gen. Lucius D. Clay demonstrated the United States’ determination to defend Western rights in Berlin by paying a visit by helicopter to the village of Steinstuecken, a part of the United States sector of Berlin that is separated from the rest of the city by a strip of East Germany territory. (1:5)

After a day of acrimonious wrangling, House and Senate conferees broke off negotiations on an appropriation for President Kennedy’s foreign aid program. Although no time was set for resuming talks and no compromise was in sight, only a matter of principals and $256,500,000 separated the two sides. (1:2-3)

Senator Margaret Chase Smith said that the Administration apparently lacked the will to use nuclear weapons. She said this weakened the United States’ capacity to deal with the Soviet Union. The consequences, she said, was an increasingly aggressive Soviet foreign policy. (2:1)

Administration spokesmen said that the new Kennedy program for mass transit and urban "open space" might be crippled or delayed for lack of Congressional appropriations in the current rush to adjourn. (16:5-6)

Kennedy asks 55 million for hurricane relief. (22)

U.S. bill on Fair participation appears dead. (35)

September 23, 1961

Secretary of State Rusk urged the United Nations General Assembly yesterday to name "an outstanding world leader" immediately to take over temporarily the functions of the Secretary General. Mr. Rusk’s statement, at a press luncheon, caused considerable irritation among United Nations delegations. Several delegates who are working to arrange a temporary appointment expressed the opinion that the statement had been badly timed and would give the impression they were carrying out State Department instructions. (1:8; Text 2)

The United Nations is building its own air force in the Congo. The decision followed the U.N.’s military setbacks in Katanga, where a lone jet fighter was able to control the air without challenge. (1:6-7)

An authoritative United States source in Berlin called on West Germany to accept, in its own interests, the "reality" of the existence of two German states. The source said West Germany would have better chances of achieving German reunification "by talking to the East Germans" rather than ignoring them. (1:6-7)

Premier Khrushchev has asserted he is ready for negotiations "at any time, any place and at any level" to avert the danger of war over Berlin and Germany. The Soviet leader made the statement in letters to the twenty-five nonaligned nations that met recently in Belgrade. (1:7; Text 4)

The Interstate Commerce Commission prescribed rules forbidding racial discrimination in interstate bus transportation. The rules, effective Nov. 1, cover terminal facilities as well as buses. The commission thus granted a petition filed by Attorney General Kennedy after the Freedom Rides in Southern states last spring. (1:1)

Administration hopes of a foreign aid appropriation of at least $4,000,000,000 were bogged down in a war of nerves between House and Senate conferees that ended in the cancellation of a third meeting. (1:5)

Mr. Kennedy signed twenty-two bills. Among them were measures giving permanent status to the Peace Corps and granting Federal aid to the states to combat juvenile delinquency. (10:5)

Little or no sympathy for the President’s plea that the line should be held on steel prices was indicated in letters from seven leading steel companies made public by the White House. The industry thus seemed to have lined up solidly against Mr. Kennedy’s arguments that a steel-price increase would be inflationary. (1:3)

Prospects for a steel price increase were dimmed, though, by an action of the Aluminum Company of America, reducing the price of aluminum ingot 2 cents a pound to 24 cents. (1:2)

In a hard-hitting speech to broadcasters, Newton N. Minow, chairman of the F.C.C. urged the three television networks to join in guaranteeing at least one late-afternoon hour of high-quality children’s programming each weekday. (1:1)

U.S. plans scrutiny of Ghana aid scheme. (8)

Air Force called able to run a Berlin airlift. (7)

September 24, 1961

Gen. Lucius D. Clay, President Kennedy’s personal representative in Berlin, declared last night that there was no change in United States policy toward the reunification of Germany. General Clay attempted to set the record straight on an off-the-cuff remark he had made, attributed to a high source to the effect that West Germany should accept the "reality" of the existence of two German states. General Clay emphasized that the United States believes in and supports "reunification of Germany." (1:8)

From Washington came word that the frozen diplomatic climate surrounding the Berlin issue appeared to be warming. Both East and West were beginning to acknowledge their eagerness for "honorable" negotiations. (1:6-7)

Secretary of State Rusk was said to believe there was still hope for a peaceful settlement on Berlin, but only if the Soviet Union changed its attitude and negotiated with regard for the rights of other nations involved. Mr. Rusk’s opinion was reported to have been expressed at a meeting in New York with representatives of the Central Treaty Organization.

Harold M. Julien, the survivor of the plane crash that killed Secretary General Hammarskjöld, died in Ndola, Northern Rhodesia. (1:7)

A U.S. citizen charged with Cuban counter-revolutionary activity was executed by a Castro firing squad. Five Cubans accused in connection with last April’s futile rebel landing were also put to death. (31:3)

A major factor in Congress’ adjournment delay was the defiance of a lone Southern Democrat, who blocked efforts to reach a compromise agreement on the Administrations $4 billion foreign-aid appropriation. Representative Otto E. Passman of La., who heads the House conferees on the bill, refused to meet Senate conferees. (82:3)

After years of playing "the lower house," the House of Representatives was in rebellion against the old order of things and the New Frontier. (1:4-5)

President Kennedy nominated eight new Federal judges, including Thurgood Marshall, chief council to the N.A.A.C.P., Dudley B. Bonsal and Irving Ben Cooper. (54:3)

It became known that Mr. Kennedy had personally put his case for steel-price stability to Roger M. Blough, the chairman of the U.S. Steel Corporation.

Mr. Blough apparently made no promises, but officials in Washington characterized his reaction as reasonable. (1:2-3)

U.S. forces in Germany ready to stem attack. (pg. 2)

U.S. may drop plan on Dominican sanctions. (pg. 30)

House unit praises Kennedy as foe of secrecy. (pg. 81)

September 25, 1961

In a five-hour conversation in Moscow, Premier Khrushchev expressed agreement on any East-West negotiations covering a wider range than the issues on Berlin and Germany. The Soviet leader also said he was not limited to any date for the negotiations and that he had never set a year-end deadline for holding the talks. (1:8)

It became known yesterday that Mr. Khrushchev’s views had been disclosed in a talk with Paul-Henri Spank of Belgium, which M. Spank reported to the NATO Council. The disclosure caused speculation among diplomats in Bonn that Moscow might postpone the signing of a peace treaty with East Germany until after the negotiations with the West. (1:8)

Last night the Soviet Union declared that the council on an international disarmament control organization should be operated on the "troika" system, representing Communist, Western and neutral countries. (1:5)

President Kennedy has reached a critical point in his Administration’s relations not only with the Soviet Union but the Allies, the neutrals, the United Nations and the Republican opposition at home. After attempting to reach an accommodation with all these forces, the President is now revealing his assumptions. (1:6-7)

Sumner Welles, Under Secretary of State in Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Administration, died in Bernardsville, N.J., after a brief illness. Mr. Welles, who was in the diplomatic service for a quarter century, was 69 years old. (1:6)

Robert Kennedy says U.S. would use A-bomb. (pg.3)

U.S. in new drive to detect underground tests. (pg. 17)

September 26, 1961

United Nations delegates crowded into the blue-and-gold General Assembly Hall and millions of persons around the world switched on radios and television sets yesterday to hear President Kennedy discuss the issues of war and peace. He told Moscow that the Allies would stand firm on Berlin but were ready to negotiate without commitment to a "rigid formula." He warned, however, that nuclear war might result if the Russians tried to override Western interests. The President also called for a single executive to succeed Dag Hammarskjöld and he urged extension of the U.N. Charter to cover outer space. (1:8; Text, pg. 14)

On disarmament, Mr. Kennedy challenged the Soviet Union to turn the arms race into a "peace race." He backed this up by presenting a detailed program for "dismantling the national capacity to wage war." (1:5; Text, pg. 16)

Though there was an absence of applause by the Communist and Cuban delegates (one Soviet diplomat combed his hair midway through the speech), Mr. Kennedy’s address won enthusiastic response from the West, Asians and Africans. (1:7)

The same held true on Capital Hill, although Republicans had some reservations. (15:5)

U.N. sources said that Mongi Slim of Tunisia has decided to resign as General Assembly President if he is named temporarily to carry out the duties of Secretary General. (1:6-7)

House and Senate conferees broke off their fourth attempt to resolve differences on President Kennedy’s foreign aid appropriation. Representative Passman, a foe of heavy aid spending and a key figure in the deadlock, said the conferees were no nearer agreement than before. Less than $10,000,000 separated the two groups, but some Senate negotiations were adamant against a compromise reduction. (1:1)

Former President Eisenhower went over plans for next year’s Congressional elections with G.O.P. campaign officials. All predicted that the Republicans would win control of the House. They also commended President Kennedy’s U.N. address. (13:1)

President Kennedy appealed by telegram for an "immediate end" to segregation in Maryland restaurants and motels, which have discriminated against African diplomats. It was his first public support of the State Department’s request for voluntary desegregation of public facilities in the state. (5:3)

September 27, 1961

Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko told the U.N. yesterday that the question of a German peace treaty overshadowed all other issues before the General Assembly. He said the question was really one of war and peace and declared no state could be neutral on the issue. (1:8; Text, pg. 14)

Mr. Gromyko seemed to hint that Moscow might take the German problem to the U.N. if the West rejected a West Berlin accord based on separate peace treaties with East and West Germany. (1:8; Text, pg. 14)

In Bonn, the West German Foreign Minister appealed to the Allies not to underwrite the division of Germany by recognizing the East German regime. (20:4)

The Soviet Union pressed to bypass the Office of Secretary General by appointment of four Under Secretaries. One of them would be elected by the others to function as executive head of the world body. (1:6-7)

The Soviet press accented the positive aspects of President Kennedy’s U.N. speech and ignored his criticism of Kremlin policy. A Toss dispatch found fault with his disarmament plan, to which it gave more space than his other proposals. (1:7)

The President signed an act creating the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency and named William C. Foster, a Republican, as director. (1:5; Text, pg. 15)

Also in New York, Mr. Kennedy conferred with Argentine President Frondizi, who already had been told about alleged Cuban plans to overthrow his regime. (3:6)

The President is expected to name John A. McCone today as the director of the C.I.A. to succeed Allen W. Dulles. (1:2-3)

Congress approved a compromise foreign aid appropriation of $3,914,600,000 last night and cleared the way for adjournment of the longest session in ten years. The settlement came when Senate negotiators finally abandoned their demand for a $4 billion program. (1:1)

Charles E. Wilson, Secretary of Defense under former President Dwight D. Eisenhower, died in his sleep at his plantation near Norwood, La. The former president of General Motors Corporation was 71 years old. (1:1)

The National Association of Manufacturers confirmed that it had cut its ties with the International Labor Organization. Officials contended that the I.L.O., an arm of the U.N., was dominated by Communists and Socialists. (37:7)

Chinese Communist scores Kennedy on Laos. (pg. 6)

Kennedy to increase contribution of U-235. (pg. 14)

President reported eager to speed urban renewal. (pg. 43)

September 28, 1961

At a luncheon at the Soviet delegation headquarters in New York yesterday, talks between Secretary Rusk and the Soviet Foreign Minster, Andrei Gromyko was on the possibility of starting negotiations on Berlin. When Mr. Rusk was asked whether any progress had been made during the four-hour talk, he replied, "We’ll see." (1:8)

East Germany served notice on the West that future access to West Berlin would hinge on direct talks between the Allies and East Germany. (1:6-7)

Two U.S. colonels who had been admonished for their part in a Jack Paar television show filmed in Berlin several weeks ago were exonerated by the Army. (12:3-4)

The U.S. will soon set a pattern for international controls over nuclear weapons materials by opening four experimental nuclear reactors to inspection by the International Atomic Energy Agency. (1:7-8)

The House of Representatives forced adjournment of the 1961 Congressional session at dawn over the protests of a frustrated Senate. By adjourning first, the House forced the Senate to accept a big controversial appropriation bill rewritten to House specifications. (1:1)

The 1961 Congress rebuffed President Kennedy in most attempts to blaze new legislative trails, but it did much to extend accepted New Deal-Fair Deal concepts. (32:1)

The President went before the Naval War College at Newport, R.I., to announce the nomination of John A. McCone to succeed Allen W. Dulles as director of the C.I.A. (1:4; Text, pg. 20)

The White House is preparing an Executive order banning discrimination in federally aided housing. The timing and scope of the order have reportedly not been decided, but officials indicated that Mr. Kennedy would probably issue it before Congress reconvenes in January. (1:2)

Former Vice President Nixon announced that he would run for Governor of California next year. He also declared "I shall not be a candidate for President in 1964." (1:2-3)

A three-man aluminum submarine capable of descending about three miles is to be built by early 1963. The craft, to be known as the Aluminaut, will operate under United States Navy auspices. (43:8)

U.S. to give 4 million to help save Nile relics. (pg. 3)

U.S. assigns 8 fighter squadrons to Europe. (pg. 11)

Sierra Leone becomes 100th U.N. member. (pg. 19)

September 29, 1961

Secretary of State Rusk and Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko are expected to meet at least a half dozen more times in the coming weeks for long and detailed discussions on Berlin and Germany. (1:4)

No progress was reported at a U.S.-Soviet meeting in New York on opposing plans for a temporary solution of the constitutional problem created by the death of Secretary General Hammarskjöld. (1:6-7)

Mr. Hammarskjöld's body was flown to Sweden for a state funeral. (3:2-4)

The United States and Britain called on the General Assembly to press for a treaty to ban nuclear weapons tests "in all environments" under effective controls. (1:7)

The Kennedy Administration, with the advice and consent of the Senate, concluded in the final weeks of Congress the greatest expansion of the Federal Judiciary in history. Sixty new circuit and district judges were nominated and confirmed. Seventeen more nominations reached the Senate too late for action, but the President will soon substitute recess appointments for those. (1:2-3)

Zuckert says U.S. will keep air access to Berlin. (pg. 5)

Soviet attacks U.S. role in world atom agency. (pg. 7)

September 30, 1961

Syria won independence by force of arms from the UAR yesterday. A new conservative, civilian regime promised today that there would be elections and constitutional rule. The new Premier in Damascus, Dr. Manmoun al-Kazbari, a conservative lawyer and law professor, declared that the Government emerging from a two-day officer’s revolt had the people’s full support. (1:8)

President Nasser, in Cairo, decided not to oppose the revolt with force. (1:8)

Experts in Washington viewed the schism as a severe blow to President Nasser’s aspirations to head a pan-Arabic concert of nations. (2:7)

President Kennedy will probably send a personal message to Premier Khrushchev next week to obtain a more precise indication of Moscow’s approach to formal East-West negotiations on Berlin and Germany. A possible White House visit was suggested to Foreign Minister Gromyko but no final arrangements were made. (1:4)

In Berlin, the Soviet Government has protested increased patrolling of the Autobahn between the city and West Germany by the United States military police. (1:5)

The White House disclosed that President Kennedy was considering a plan to sponsor seminars in key cities to build public support for medical care for the aged and other Administration proposals. Other objectives would be to learn what domestic legislation the public thinks should be asked of Congress next year and to explain what was accomplished at this year’s session. (1:2)

Secretary of Commerce Hodges said that although Soviet industrial output was growing rapidly, it would still lag behind that of the United States by 25 to 40 percent ten years from now. He predicted that the Soviet economy would be 52 percent smaller than the United States economy in 1970. (7:3)

Signs of Ghana drift to Left worry U.S. (pg. 1)

Khrushchev again warns Japan on U.S. bases. (pg. 6)