JFKWHP-AR7993-B (crop): Martin Luther King, Jr. and Civil Rights Leaders with Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy and Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson, 22 June 1963

The Federal Government filed a suit against the state of Alabama and Bullock County registrars, charging discrimination against prospective Negro voters by requiring them to be supported by two persons previously registered as voters. (46:1) – 21 January 1961 Mr. Hammarskjöld reported that he had been unable to reach an "acceptable agreement" on racial problems when he was in South Africa recently. (6:3) – January 24, 1961

In a retreat from massive resistance to Federal court orders, the Georgia Legislature approved repeal of public school segregation laws. This leaves to the local communities the question of keeping schools open, even if it means at least token integration. (1:4) – January 28, 1961

Powell demands anit-bias action. Representative Adam Clayton Powell Jr. demanded last night that his long-pending proposal to bar Federal funds to schools discriminating against Negroes be adopted now either through legislation of "Executive order of the White House." (1) – January 30, 1961

President Kennedy’s news conference saw his first substantial comments about civil rights since assuming office. Referring to the integration struggle in New Orleans, he said both the Constitution and public Opinion demanded admission of children to public schools "regardless of their trace". He said he would "attempt to use moral authority of the Presidency, "in New Orleans and elsewhere," at such a time as I think it most useful and most effective." (1:8) – February 9, 1961

The Administration took its first legal action over segregation, as the Justice Department sued to free $350,000 in Federal aid that Louisiana has withhold from New Orleans schools. (1:2-3) – February 17, 1961

In a message to the Civil Rights Commission conference in Williamsburg, the President singled out the "quiet intelligence and true courage" of teachers and school officials in the New Orleans school desegregation fight. (1:1, Text, 43) – February 26, 1961

Some of President Kennedy’s closest advisers report he has decided that the most effective help his administration can give the Negro at the present time is in the economic field. (1:2-3) – March 6, 1961

President Kennedy, in his first major civil rights action, created a new committee to fight racial discrimination and in hiring by the Government and its contractors. Mr.. Kennedy named Vice President Johnson as head of the new group and designated the Labor Department as its chief investigative arm. (1:1; Text, Page. 27) – March 7, 1961

Negro leaders and business men in Atlanta, GA., agreed to a formula for desegregation of lunch counters and other store facilities. (1:2) – March 8, 1961

The President made known his displeasure over the reported barring of a Negro woman delegate from equal housing at a Civil War Centennial celebration in Charleston, S.C. By a strange coincidence on history, the letter went to Lieut. Gen. U.S. Grand 3d. (1:4-5) – March 18, 1961

Louisiana’s various efforts to block the desegregation of schools in New Orleans were held unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. (1:4) – March 21, 1961

The National Civil War Centennial Commission bowed to the President’s second appeal and agreed to avoid the segregated hotels in Charleston, S.C., and hold its annual meeting at the desegregated Charleston Naval Station. (1:4) – March 26, 1961

The N.A.A.C.P. challenged the Administration’s award of a billion-dollar jet contract to Lockheed as a "shameful mockery" of the President’s order against discrimination in work for the Government. (1:1) – April 7, 1961

The President will ask Congress to extend the life of the Civil Rights Commission. (1:1) – April 19, 1961

Labor Secretary Goldberg made a sharp attack on private clubs in the country that practice bias. He signaled out the Metropolitan Club in Washington for barring Negro envoys. (1:2) – April 30, 1961

Without White House fanfare, or formal endorsement, a series of civil rights bills was introduced in Congress by Democrats. Republicans accused the Administration of timidity. (1:3-4) – May 9, 1961

The White House disassociated itself from civil rights legislation introduced by two Democrats in Congress Monday. Mr. Kennedy’s spokesman said that "the President has made it clear that he does not think it necessary at this time to enact civil rights legislation." (1-2:3) – May 10, 1961

White and Negro "Freedom Riders" canceled a violence-marred bus trip through the South after drivers balked. They flew to New Orleans after an earlier flight was delayed by a bomb warning. (1:2) – May 16, 1961

Gov. John Patterson of Alabama proclaimed martial law in Montgomery last night. The move came after Federal marshals, reinforced by local police, had to use tear gas to quell an angry mob of hundreds of whites outside a mass Negro church meeting. The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. telephoned President Kennedy for help. (1:8) – May 22, 1961

Robert F. Kennedy told Alabama members of Congress that he would maintain a Federal peace force in their state only as long as necessary. However, he said, "What is needed now is action on the part of Governor Patterson and local law enforcement officers ’ not merely words of intension" (1:4) – May 24, 1961

Violence in Montgomery and Birmingham prompted a Justice Department attempt to bring police officials of those two cities under a Federal court injunction prohibiting interference with interstate travel. Attorney general said police had withheld protection from the Freedom Riders. (1:6-7) – May 25, 1961

Great Neck’s Committee for Human rights announced that twenty-five homes in white neighborhoods had been made available to Negro tenants or buyers. (1:6) – May 25, 1961

A Federal district judge in Montgomery, Ala., threatened Negro and white leaders alike with prison terms, as he ordered Freedom Riders to end their tests of bus integration and forbade Montgomery police to withhold protection from interstate passengers, no matter what their race. He also enjoined Ku Klux Klansmen and their associates from interfering with such travel. (1:5) – June 3, 1961

The N.A.A.C.P. has started a campaign to cut off Federal funds for state employment services that practice racial discrimination in filling jobs. (23:3) – June 7, 1961

The Justice Department had recommended, without public announcement, that Congress extend for an indefinite period the controversial Civil Rights Commission. (1:5) – June 17, 1961

Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy met privately with a group of Freedom Riders in Washington last week and urged them to concentrate on Negro voting registration in the South. He expressed the view that they had made their point on segregated travel facilities. (30:2) – June 20, 1961

A flurry of Southern Democratic opposition failed to keep the Senate from confirming the appointments of two members, one a Negro, and the staff director of the Civil Rights Commission. (9:4) – July 28, 1961

Angier Biddle Duke, the State Department’s chief of protocol, has resigned from Washington’s exclusive Metropolitan Club because the club denies entrance to African diplomats. (12:3) – August 9, 1961

The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., said that Negro integration leaders would end Freedom Rides when the Interstate Commerce Commission issues a blanket order against bus station segregation. (12:2) – August 14, 1961

The Justice Department pressed the I.C.C. to adopt Attorney General Kennedy’s recommendations for ending segregation in interstate bus travel. Major bus companies and the State of Mississippi oppose it. (1:3) – August 16, 1961

Violence broke out during anti-segregation picketing in Monroe, N.C. Fifteen pickets and three other persons were accused of inciting a riot. (1:2) – August 28, 1961

Atlanta officials took final steps to insure that the beginning of public school desegregation in Georgia would be peaceful today. Nine Negroes will be admitted to four previously all-white high schools. The preparations were the most extensive any Southern city has made. (21:2) – August 30, 1961

In Atlanta, public school desegregation came peacefully to Georgia despite efforts by a few racists to disrupt the change. (1:3) – August 31, 1961

The Civil Rights Commission recommended that Congress outlaw all voter-qualification tests not related to age, residence, imprisonment or conviction for felony. The recommendation, which would mean a sweeping revision of state voting laws throughout the country, was endorsed by four of the six commission members. Another major recommendation to emerge from the group’s study of discriminatory voting practices in the South was a unanimous request to Congress to declare a sixth-grade education sufficient to qualify voters under state "literacy" tests. (1:1; Text, 68) – September 10, 1961

A judge in Jackson, Miss., gave four-month jail sentences to fifteen ministers who had attempted to dine together in a segregated restaurant. (1:2) – September 16, 1961

Georgia’s first voluntary college desegregation began in Atlanta when three Negro students started the school year at Georgia Tech under heavy police guard. There were no disturbances. The school’s action was generally viewed as a move toward off a Federal decree that would regulate the administration’s racial policies. (21:2) – September 19, 1961

The Interstate Commerce Commission prescribed rules forbidding racial discrimination in interstate bus transportation. The rules, effective Nov. 1, cover terminal facilities as well as buses. The commission thus granted a petition filed by Attorney General Kennedy after the Freedom Rides in Southern states last spring. (1:1) – September 23, 1961

President Kennedy appealed by telegram for an "immediate end" to segregation in Maryland restaurants and motels, which have discriminated against African diplomats. It was his first public support of the State Department’s request for voluntary desegregation of public facilities in the state. (5:3) – September 26, 1961

The White House is preparing an Executive order banning discrimination in federally aided housing. The timing and scope of the order have reportedly not been decided, but officials indicated that Mr. Kennedy would probably issue it before Congress reconvenes in January. (1:2) – September 28, 1961

A policy against racial discrimination in mortgage lending by Federal savings and loan associations has quietly been adopted by the Federal Home Loan Bank Board. It affects the nations’ largest source of home mortgage financing. (1:8) – October 4, 1961

The N.A.A.C.P. lodged complaints of anti-Negro bias in plants of two major defense contractors-Douglas Aircraft and Western Electric-both of which had signed White house pledges to give Negroes equal job chances. (29:3) – October 11, 1961

The merged labor federation censured A. Phillip Randolph, its only Negro vice president, for having created a rift "between organized labor and the Negro community." The executive council of the federation also disputed his charges of discrimination and racism by several federation affiliates. (1:1) – October 13, 1961

The Civil Rights Commission urged Congress to pass legislation banning racial discrimination by the nation’s labor unions. The commission also asked President Kennedy to end segregation in the National Guard and to insure equal opportunity for Negroes on all projects subsidized by Federal grants to states and cities. (1:1) – October 14, 1961

Attorney General Kennedy announced that three of the South’s largest railroads had agreed to desegregate their terminal waiting rooms. Mr. Kennedy said the lines deserved "great credit." (1:2-3) – October 17, 1961

Declaring that he was yielding to pressure by the N.A.A.C.P., the Postmaster General reinstated with "great regret" a dismissed Negro letter carrier whom he regarded as unsuited for the job. The man had been dismissed from a Georgia post office on various major charges, but the real reason was his leadership of its Georgia unit. (23:4) – October 25, 1961

A warning that forcible interference with United States’ rights and obligations would bring war, a war that the United States would win, was made by Secretary of Defense McNamara. He addressed a segregated audience in Atlanta after having crossed a Negro picket line protesting his appearance. (79:3) – November 12, 1961

The Civil Rights Commission reported that police lawlessness and brutality remained "a serious problem throughout the United States." A commission study found that "Negroes feel the brutality" and it recommended corrective action by both Congress and the Administration. (1:2; Excerpts, 22) – November 17, 1961

Washington officials said that a compromise Executive Order to bar discrimination in Federally aided housing had been hammered out by an Administration group two weeks ago. Spokesmen for civil rights groups have expressed concern because the President has not signed it. (1:5)- November 27, 1961

Hundreds of aroused Negroes, led by the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., marched on the City Hall in Albany, Ga., for a protest prayer meeting. About 150 of them, including Dr. King, were arrested. The demonstration followed the breakdown of negotiations to settle a week-long racial controversy, sparked by the refusal to city officials to release 230 Negroes being held in jail. (1:2) – December 17, 1961

Negro groups and the Justice Department were dismayed when the Supreme Court refused to order a temporary halt to the prosecution of Freedom Riders in Jackson, Miss. (1:2) – December 18, 1961

The Justice Department asked a Federal court to strike down a Louisiana law requiring voter applicants to pass a Constitution interpretation test. In the Department’s first broad attack on the constitutionality of a state voting law on its face, it said that the test was a device to keep Negroes from registering and voting. (1:1) – December 29, 1961