Notes
1. Scrapbook prepared by Grace Hall Hemingway: "A Record of Ernest Miller Hemingway's Baby Days, Birth to 23 months old," p. 5, in the Ernest Hemingway Collection, John F. Kennedy Library, Boston, MA.

2. Mary Welsh Hemingway, How It Was (1976), p. 113.

3. Grace Hemingway's scrapbook, p. 12, Hemingway Collection, JFK Library.

4. Ibid., p. 6.

5. Items 121, 123, 126 (with Hemingway note: "Don't use until I'm dead. Maybe not then. Not in Hadley's lifetime."), 127, Manuscripts, Hemingway Collection, JFK Library. Later published in Ernest Hemingway, A Moveable Feast (1964), pp. 197-198, 199, 210.

6. Mar. 21, 1915, Inventory of Personal Property, Notebooks, Other Materials, Hemingway Collection, JFK Library.

7. 1916, June 10-June 17, Camping trip with Lewis Clarahan from Onekama along Manistee River to Bear Creek, Notebooks, other Materials, Hemingway Collection, JFK Library.

8. Carlos Baker, Ernest Hemingway: A Life Story (1969), pp. 26-27, 568.

9. Hemingway's published high school pieces have been collected and reprinted in Ernest Hemingway's Apprenticeship: Oak Park, 1916-1917, ed. Matthew J. Bruccoli (1971).

10. Ernest Hemingway letter to Charles Fenton, cited in ibid., p. xvii.

11. Ibid., p. xiv.

12. Kansas City Star stories attributable to Hemingway have been collected and reprinted in Ernest Hemingway, Cub Reporter--Kansas City Star Stories, ed. Matthew J. Bruccoli (1970).

13. The Kansas City Style Book, p.1, Miscellaneous Publications, Other Materials, Hemingway Collection, JFK Library.

14. "Back to His First Field," Kansas City Times, Nov. 26, 1940, Newspaper Clippings, Hemingway Collection, JFK Library.

15. George Plimpton, "The Art of Fiction XXI: Ernest Hemingway," Paris Review, Spring 1958, Newspaper Clippings, Hemingway Collection, JFK Library.

16. Henry Serrano Villard and James Nagel, Hemingway in Love and War: The Lost Diary of Agnes von Kurowsky, Her Letters, and Correspondence of Ernest Hemingway (1989), p.1. Ambassador Villard has donated to the Hemingway Collection all his materials on his experiences in World War 1, including his diary and the papers of Agnes von Kurowsky, including her diary and letters.

17. Roselle Dean, "First Lieutenant Hemingway," The Oak Parker, Feb. 1, 1991, Newspaper Clippings, Hemingway Collection, JFK Library.

18. Villard and Nagel, Hemingway in Love and War, p.2.

19. The Enduring Hemingway: An Anthology of a Lifetime in Literature, ed. Charles Scribner, Jr. (1974), pp. xvi-xvii.

20. Grandparents' Scrapbook, Hemingway Collection, JFK Library. Contains photographs, clippings, and letters from Hemingway's birth through World War 1.

21. Item 64, Manuscripts, Hemingway Collection, JFK Library; Ernest Hemingway, A Farewell to Arms (1929), p. 18.

22. Scribner, ed., The Enduring Hemingway, pp. xvii-xviii.

23. Agnes von Kurowsky letters to E. Hemingway, Incoming Correspondence, Hemingway Collection, JFK Library.

24. Villard and Nagel, Hemingway in Love and War, pp. 163-164.

25. Gioia Diliberto's recent biography Hadley (1992) draws heavily on this correspondence and on taped interviews with Hadley Hemingway Mowrer, 1970-1972.

26. Wedding to Hadley, Other Materials, Hemingway Collection, JFK Library.

27. Baker, A Life Story, p. 82.

28. Many of Hemingway's articles for the Toronto Star have been collected and reprinted in Ernest Hemingway: Dateline: Toronto, The Complete Toronto Star Dispatches, 1920-1924, ed. William White (1985). To celebrate its centennial, the Star had staff members search its archives and the Hemingway Collection at the JFK Library to locate additional Hemingway items. They identified twenty definite and five probable new stories which they published, along with the tale of "Uncovering the 'Hidden' Hemingway," in a special supplement to the Toronto Star, Sunday, Mar. 1, 1992, pp. Fl-F8.

29. E. Hemingway, The Complete Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway: The Finca Vigia Edition (1987), p. xvi. The Finca edition is a compilation of all previously published Hemingway short stories from both books and magazines, and seven previously unpublished pieces, with a foreword by Hemingway's sons and a preface by Charles Scribner, Jr.

30. Headlines from articles by Hemingway in the Toronto Star, Toronto Star Scrapbook, Hemingway Collection, JFK Library.

31. E. Hemingway, Complete Short Stories: Finca Edition, p. xvi.

32. Account Book, April 1922, Constantinople, Notebooks, Other Materials, Hemingway Collection, JFK Library.

33. "Chapter 11," E. Hemingway, In Our Time (1925), p. 23.

34. E. Hemingway, A Moveable Feast, p. 96.

35. Items 121, 123, 126, 127, Manuscripts, Hemingway Collection, JFK Library; E. Hemingway, A Moveable Feast, p. 197.

36. Ibid., p. 73.

37. Ibid.

38. Joe Haldeman, The Hemingway Hoax (1990) and MacDonald Harris, Hemingway's Suitcase (1990).

39. E. Hemingway, A Moveable Feast, p.75.

40. Ibid., pp. 75-76.

41. Item 274, Manuscripts, Hemingway Collection, JFK Library.

42. E. Hemingway, The Sun Also Rises (1926), unnumbered page before Book I.

43. Telephone conversation, Patrick Hemingway to the author, May 1992.

44. E. Hemingway, A Moveable Feast, p. 202.

45. Items 193-202d, Manuscripts, Hemingway Collection, JFK Library, which have been published in facsimile in Ernest Hemingway: The Sun Also Rises A Facsimile Edition, ed. Matthew J. Bruccoli (1990).

46. E. Hemingway, A Moveable Feast, pp. 184-185.

47. F. Scott Fitzgerald to E. Hemingway, June 25, 1926, Incoming Correspondence, Hemingway Collection, JFK Library.

48. Ernest Hemingway: Selected Letters, 1917-1961, ed. Carlos Baker (1981), P. 407.

49. Jack Hemingway's baptismal certificate, Other Materials, Hemingway Collection, JFK Library.

50. Clarence Hemingway to Ernest Hemingway, Dec. 13, 1926, Incoming Correspondence, Hemingway Collection, JFK Library.

51. Grace Hemingway to Ernest Hemingway, Dec. 4, 1926, Incoming Correspondence, Hemingway Collection, JFK Library.

52. Baker, A Life Story, p.87.

53. E. Hemingway, A Moveable Feast, pp. 209-210.

54. Item 123, Manuscripts, Hemingway Collection, JFK Library.

55. May 1927, date book for marriage to Pauline, Notebooks, Other Materials, Hemingway Collection, JFK Library.

56. Item 65, P. 241, Manuscripts, Hemingway Collection, JFK Library.

57. Item 77 Fitzgerald's notes, Manuscripts, Hemingway Collection, JFK Library.

58. E. Hemingway to Charles Poore, Jan. 23, 1953, Outgoing Correspondence, Hemingway Collection, JFK Library.

59. Item 77, verso of page 10, Manuscripts, Hemingway Collection, JFK Library.

60. Gregory Hemingway, Papa: A Personal Memoir (1976), p. 3.

61. E. Hemingway, Complete Short Stories: Finca Edition, p. xvii.

62. Ibid.

63. E. Hemingway to Robert Cantwell, Aug. 25, 1950, Outgoing Correspondence, Hemingway Collection, JFK Library.

64. Scribner, ed, The Enduring Hemingway, p. xviii.

65. Ibid., p. xix.

66. E. Hemingway, Death in the Afternoon (1932), p. 16.

67. NANA Dispatches, Manuscripts, Hemingway Collection, JFK Library.

68. Martha Gellhorn to Pauline Hemingway, Jan. 14, 1937, cited in Baker, A Life Story, P. 298.

69. Martha Gellhorn, Travels With Myself and Another (1978), p. 20.

70. Ibid., P. 24.

71. E. Hemingway, Complete Short Stories: Finca Edition, pp. xi-xii.

72. Baker, ed., Selected Letters, p. ix.

73. E. Hemingway to Fitzgerald, July 1, 1925, Outgoing Correspondence, Hemingway Collection, JFK Library.

74. Jack Hemingway, Misadventures of a Fly Fisherman; My Life With and Without Papa (1986), p. 175.

75. E. Hemingway, Complete Short Stories: Finca Edition, p. xv.

76. E. Hemingway, The Old Man and the Sea (1952), p. 25.

77. Scribner, ed., The Enduring Hemingway, pp. xxi.

78. E. Hemingway to Wallace Meyer, Mar. 4 and 7, 1952, Outgoing Correspondence, Hemingway Collection, JFK Library.

79. Baker, A Life Story, p. 500.

80. Ibid., P. 489.

81. Baker, ed., Selected Letters, p. 557.

82. John Raeburn, Fame Became Him (1984), pp. 6-7.

83. Baker, A Life Story, p. 505.

84. Item 609a, Manuscripts, Hemingway Collection, JFK Library.

85. G. Hemingway, Papa: A Personal Memoir, p. 119.

86. Scribner, ed., The Enduring Hemingway, p. xiii


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Megan Floyd Desnoyers is a supervisory archivist on the staff of the John F. Kennedy Library and is curator of the Ernest Hemingway Collection. She received her M.L.S. from Rutgers University, has worked at the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, and has been with the National Archives for twenty-three years.

This article originally appeared in Prologue: Quarterly of the National Archives, Vol. 24, No. 4, Winter 1992.