1-7 | 8-14 | 15-21 | 22-28

February 1, 1961

President Kennedy appointed Adolf A. Berle Jr., a former Assistant Secretary of State and one of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s "brain trusters," as chairman of a task force to coordinate policies on Latin America. (1:7)

Mr. Kennedy had summoned Ambassador Llewellyn E. Thompson from Moscow to report on Soviet-American relations. (1:7)

In Israel, the Government of Premier David Ben-Gurion fell in the turmoil created by the Lavon affair. Mr. Ben-Gurion wrote out his resignation after a parliamentary debate had displayed weakness in the coalition regime. (1:4)

Speaker Sam Rayburn and the Kennedy Administration won a narrow victory for liberalizing the House-Rules Committee. The House voted 217 to 212 to raise the committee’s membership from twelve to fifteen and thus shift control from a conservative coalition to Administration forces led by Mr. Rayburn. (1:8)

In Farm policy, the White House made public four task force reports. They recommended emergency and voluntary expanded land-retirement programs to meet immediate, but not long-term, farm problems. (1:8)

A male chimpanzee nicknamed "Ham" was rocketed 420 miles over the Caribbean in a test of the Mercury capsule that is to carry a human astronaut into orbit. The thirty-seven pound chimp apparently performed as expected and was apparently in good condition when a helicopter pulled the capsule from the water almost three hours after the launching. (1:3-4) In California, meanwhile, the United States successfully fired a Samos spy satellite into polar orbit. (17:5)

Quadros is inaugurated as President of Brazil. (3)

Spaak resigns NATO post to re-enter politics. (16)

President plans 2-way drive to spur tourism. (18)

U.S. fights "loophole" aiding dollar outflow. (22)

February 2, 1961

Mr. Kennedy started out by revoking his predecessor's controversial order to reduce by more than half the nearly 500,000 overseas military dependents. He cited the morale factor and said that other ways of saving dollar expenditures abroad had been found. As a first step, the Pentagon said their spending would be curbed. (1:8)

On the United States' position in critical world trouble spots, the President said it was less satisfactory than it was last fall," and called attention particularly to the situations in Laos, the Congo and Cuba. (1:7-8)

On the rebel seizure of the Santa Maria , Mr. Kennedy indicated that he hoped the passengers aboard the liner would be landed safely and the ship returned to the Portuguese Government (4:8) Meanwhile, the liner and the city of Recife, Brazil, stared at each other across a short stretch of water as negotiations on the fate of the ship and release of her passengers continued. (1:4)

A tiny crack also appeared in the anti-American facade of Communist China. In an otherwise condemnatory report, Peiping found "some gestures for peace" in the President's State of the Union message. (9:1)

Mr. Kennedy also announced at his news conference several steps to counter the recession, including food-stamp projects in five particularly depressed areas, accelerated payment of G.I. life insurance dividends and a number of stimulants for housing and other construction. But he said he had no present intention to seek tax cuts. (1:6)

The President's brother, Attorney General Kennedy, picked his chief lieutenant for a stepped-up nation-wide drive against organized crime -- Edwyn Silberling, a special prosecutor in Suffolk County. (1:7)

In what was probably the country's most ambitious missile test, the Air Force launched its three-stage minuteman for the first time and scored a spectacular success. It was fired as a complete package, the first stage of which was the largest solid-propellant rocket ever launched in the Western world, or probably anywhere else. (1:3) Meanwhile, the chimpanzee Ham, the largest animal ever rocketed into space, completed his round trip from Cape Canaveral and back by more mundane transportation ’ ship and van -- and was still in sprightly spirits. (7:1-4)

President explains curb on speeches by officers. (10)

Alabama jury finds Times guilty of libel. (17)

U.S. to plug gap in satellite detection plan. (8)

Kennedy hails drive by advertising men.

February 3, 1961

The rebel-seized Portuguese liner gave up her shield of 607 captive passengers -- tense but joyful men, women and children of nine lands. The entire crew also quit the ship, under protection of armed Brazilian marines, leaving behind the insurgent leader, Henrique M. Galvao, and about thirty of his followers, along with other marine guards. There, within the embrace of the harbor's sea wall, he continued to negotiate his own status and that of the ship amid Brazilian appeals that he accept asylum. (1:1)

In Miami, it was revealed that President Kennedy would soon receive recommendations for utilizing exiled Cuban educators in strengthening, the hemisphere. (1:2)

At the United Nations, the Soviet delegate called on the Kennedy Administration to make a "critical, reappraisal" of United States policy in Africa. He also continued Moscow’s attack on Secretary General Hammarskjöld, and drew a sharp reply on the score from Adlai E. Stevenson. (1:3)

President Kennedy announced that Prime Minister Macmillan would visit Washington during the week of April 2 for an Informal discussion of global problems. (1:8)

In London, it appeared that Mr. Kennedy's State of the Union message had paid off in gold. The price of the metal there fell below $35.35 an ounce for the first time since the "gold rush" last October. (1:5)

President Kennedy submitted to Congress his first package of specific proposals ’ an Economic Message setting forth a wide-ranging program "to set us firmly on the road to full recovery and sustained growth." He requested legislation and announced Administrative action to relieve the unemployed and aged and to stimulate economic growth at a rate of something more than 3.5 percent per year. His message included word that unemployment had risen again in January, though less than usual for this time of year. (1:8)

His program ranged from food stags for the idle to improved social security for the retired. Specifically, Mr. Kennedy asked Congress to raise the minimum monthly social security payments from $33 to 43, and to permit men to collect reduced benefits beginning at age 62, financed by higher taxes on employers and employees. (11:8) (A summary of other highlights appears on Page 11.)

The Administration's concern over trouble spots abroad was reflected in an announcement by Defense Secretary McNamara of a speedy build-up of long-range cargo and troop carrier planes to meet limited war situations anywhere in the world. (1:6-7)

Seven cars of a Pennsylvania Railroad special carrying about 300 passengers to the races were derailed some three miles from Bowie, Md., killing six persons. More than ninety were taken to hospitals. The engineer said his breaks failed. (1:1)

U.S. weighs increase in Korean aid. (4)

Sam Houston, 7th Polaris submarine, launched. (6)

G.I. morale uplifted on dependency order. (6)

Ribicoff, in report, offers a health program. (9)

Kennedy pledges urban housing aid. (11)

Kennedy acts to resolve the money dilemma. (31)

February 4, 1961

The pattern of an evolving new United States policy on the troubled Congo became clear yesterday through some guarded comment at the State Department. Behind it is a conviction by the Kennedy Administration that a new "federalized" Congo Government embracing all factions, including that supporting former Premier Lumumba, offers the only hope of preventing civil war. The Administration is giving full support to the United Nations Secretary General in his plan to take "all Congolese arced forces out of politics." (1)

Also in Washington, the President received a first-hand report from his Ambassador to Laos amid indications that the Administration might soon take the initiative in seeking an end of the continuing crisis there. (1:4)

Brazil turned the liner Santa Maria over to the Portuguese Government shortly after the Portuguese rebels, led by Henrique Galvao surrendered the ship and accepted an offer of asylum. (1:2-3)

Following a conference with Welfare Secretary Ribicoff, President Kennedy ordered a $4,000,000 Federal aid program to help feed, resettle and rehabilitate Cuban refugees who have fled to this country. And he expressed considerable interest in a proposal for utilizing exiled Cuban educators as a nucleus for establishing a new university of the Americas. (1:2)

Another member of the family, the youngest of the Kennedy brothers Ted, was expected to launch his own political career on Monday as an assistant district attorney in Boston. (8:3-4)

Labor Secretary Goldberg, addressed the National Press Club and said that it was not the President’s intention, in calling for a White House labor-management panel, "to foster a compulsory system of Wage and price policy" to replace present collective bargaining machinery. (8:1)

Hodges endorses bill to spur tourism in U.S. (6)

Three states maintain full school segregation (20)

February 5, 1961

The Soviet Union quietly accepted this United States' request for a six-week postponement of the nuclear test-ban conference in Geneva. President Kennedy had asked for a delay from Feb. 7 to March 21 to permit his Administration to review the problem and to consider new proposals. (1:3)

Moscow warned Mr. Kennedy that his State of the Union message has evoked "irksome echoes of the cold war" and presaged an expansion of the arms race. (20:3)

In the Portuguese West African territory of Angola, meanwhile, the Government announced it had crushed an armed uprising supposedly timed with the seizure of the Santa Maria . The outbreak represented the strongest burst of African nationalism in Angola to date. (1:2)

In Israel, the Lavon affair also erupted in violence. Police squads bore into a crowd of about 1,000 persons in Tel Aviv, swinging batons and tearing down placards protesting the meeting of the Mapai party’s Central Committee, which had voted to remove Pinhas Lavon from his post as secretary general of Histadrut, the country’s labor federation. (1:1)

The Soviet Union announced it had put into orbit a huge space vehicle weighing more than seven tons by means of improved multi-stage rockets. There was no indication that anything living was aboard the device, but the launching was apparently part of Moscow's program of tests leading up to the placing of man into space flight. (1:1)

The White House disclosed that United States intelligence knew of the Sputnik launching before it was announced in Moscow and had informed President Kennedy of it Friday night. The disclosure underscored the continued effectiveness of various intelligence efforts directed toward the Soviet Union despite the discontinuance of U-2 reconnaissance flights. (1:2)

Goldberg will back bills aiding migrant labor. (37)

Atlanta Mayor criticizes the F.H.A. (37)

New air of urgency grips Justice Department. (38)

Kennedy keeps Thompson out of Jersey race. (38)

Farmers hail Kennedy’s start on crop problem. (39)

February 6, 1961

The Cuban Government seized the water company that supplies the United States naval base at Guantanamo, but so far the flow said to be "normal." (1:2)

Meanwhile, a group of prominent Canadians and Americans issued a report to set the record straight, denying Canada was "aggressively" seeking to expand Cuban trade. (7:2)

Meanwhile, the Senate Subcommittee on National Policy Machinery issued a nine-page, briskly written study in which it said that the President needed more help in formulating security policy. It said he wouldn’t get it by creating "super Cabinet positions in the White House" but be "strengthening the traditional means of executive power." (1:1)

On Capital Hill, the Kennedy Administration was pressing early Congressional action to amend the Battle Acct to open the way for loans to some Communist and neutral nations. (1:1)

Vice President asks cut in arm to Middle East. (18)

February 7, 1961

In a message to Congress, President Kennedy made a few new proposals designed to ease the balance-of-payments problem. Instead, he placed emphasis on expanded exports and a stronger domestic economy. What was new was the proposal to reduce $100 in tourist’s duty free imports. (1:1)

Administration studies indicate that a "missile gap" between this country and the Soviet Union has not developed. It is also understood the Soviets did not engage in a "crash" ballistic-missiles program. (1:1-2)

James R. Hoffa, president of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters, sees his goal of one master union agreement for all local and long distance trucking of general freight within reach. (1:6-7)

Seven executives of leading electrical manufacturing companies were sentenced to jail for violation of the antitrust laws. Federal District Judge J. Cullen Ganey sent each to prison for thirty days and levied fines totaling $931,500 on corporations and individuals. (1:4-5)

Secretary of State Rusk held his first news conference and stated he favored a "clarified or strengthened" U.N. mandate in the Congo. (1:3; Text pg. 10)

Mr. Rusk also issued an extremely important statement that this country is ready to help other American states in ending tyranny. (1:2)

Truman hails Kennedy as new world Leader. (pg. 23)

Goldberg to visit crucial unemployment areas. (pg. 22)

Senate backs plan for new Cabinet post. (pg. 23)

February 8, 1961

President Kennedy called on Congress for prompt action to increase the national minimum wage from $1 to $1.25 an hour and extend the protection to 4,300,000 workers. He declared that "our nation can ill afford to tolerate the growth of an underprivileged and underpaid class." (1:1)

Dr. Robert C. Weaver, nominated to be Mr. Kennedy’s Federal housing chief, ran into heavy fire at a Senate hearing on his confirmation. Senator A. Willis Robertson of Virginia held up the hearing until the President could rush to the committee a letter healing with the New Yorker’s loyalty. If confirmed, Dr. Weaver would have the highest Federal Government post ever held by a Negro. (1:2) The White House branded as inaccurate reports that the Kennedy Administration had tentatively concluded that there is no "missile gap" favoring the Soviet Union. (1:4)

On another defense matter, the new Administration was considering plans for more amphibious assault ships to prepare for possible limited war situations at remote places in the world. (15:1)

February 9, 1961

President Kennedy faced the press yesterday: He pledged unstinting and expanding support of the North Atlantic Alliance. And he announced the appointment of Dean Acheson, former Secretary of State and a participant in the founding of NATO, to head an advisory group to aid in determining policy towards NATO. (1, Column; Text, Page 18) The President also made it plain that he thought Chancellor Adenauer’s offer to help in easing the balance of international payments was neither "impressive" nor "generous," as West German Officials described it. Mr. Kennedy was hopeful for a larger contribution by Bonn. (7:1) Mr. Kennedy conferred for more than two hours with his top advisers on possible steps to meet the crisis in Laos. While no decisions were announced, it was believed that the Administration favored a proposal for the Laotian Government to invite representatives of neutral nations to conduct a fast-finding survey there. (1:2) President Kennedy’s news conference saw his first substantial comments about civil rights since assuming office. Referring to the integration struggle in New Orleans, he said both the Constitution and public Opinion demanded admission of children to public schools "regardless of their trace". He said he would "attempt to use moral authority of the Presidency, "in New Orleans and elsewhere," at such a time as I think it most useful and most effective." (1:8) He indicated caution concerning any anti-recession tax cut, preferring to put the money into "programs which in the long run may be more useful." He said a temporary cut would trim Government income by as much as $5,000,000,000, and might "limit our ability to go ahead" on expanded programs for education, health and international security. (1:6-7) On health, he announced that he was directing the establishment of a "child health center" to deal with special research problems, such as congenital malformations and mental retardation. (19:1) The Kennedy Administration moved on the farm front, with the Agriculture Department winning substantial support in Congress for a crash program to limit production of feed grains and increase farm income. (1:7) In the wake of their convictions for price-fixing and rigging of bids, the country's biggest electrical manufacturers were threatened by government bodies and private utilities with damage suits totaling many millions of dollars. (1:6-7) Korea's wobbly economy worries United States. (8) Wheat sale to China aids Menzies regime. (9)

February 10, 1961

The Administration urged the Soviet Union to exercise restraint on critical East-West issues pending its review of global policies. The request was coupled with a warning that the new Administration could be tougher than the old one. (1:8) Moscow protested against what it called "a bandit attack" by a French jet fighter on an airliner carrying the Soviet chief of state, Leonid I. Brezhnev, to a state visit in Guinea. The strongly worded protest said the jet made three dangerously close passes and fired twice across the airliner's path. (1:8) In the case of Soviet espionage in Britain, the F.B.I. said two of the defendants, Mr. and Mrs. Peter Kroger, were in fact Morris Cohen and his wife, Lola, American citizens and formerly New York residents. The F.B.I. said they had been under investigation several times but for lack of evidence were never taken into custody. (1:5) Washington took issue with the British view that "the facts of international life require" the seating of Communist China in the United Nations. A spokesman for the State Department said the London view was "not the result of any consultation." (1:7) The director of the President's Food-for-Peace program reported that feed grains and other surplus goods would be offered as inducements to South American countries initiating land reforms. (1:22-3) In a special message read to the House and Senate by clerks, President Kennedy outlined a board and controversial program of Federal insurance, grants and scholarships to cope with the county’s needs in the field of health. The insurance plan, similar to plans rejected in the last session, calls for hospital, nursing home and other care for about 14,200,000 persons over 65 who are eligible for Social Security benefits. It would be financed by higher taxes. (1:1) Attorney General Kennedy formally announced that the Justice Department was preparing damage suits against electrical equipment companies convicted of price fixing and bid rigging. (1:1) Kennedy may drop Operations Coordinating Board. (Page 7) Kennedy views religion as reservoir of resources. (Page 12) Former Sen. Millard Tydings of Maryland died (Page 27)

February 11, 1961

The Katanga radio blared out the news yesterday that Patrice Lumumba, the Congo’s deposed Premier, had escaped from detention in the secessionist province. The report caused apprehension in Leopoldville and led to speculation that he might be dead. Ghana’s representative in the U. N. Conciliation Commission expressed fear that Mr. Lumumba had been killed and that the escape story was a "cover-up." (1:8) The Kennedy Administration’s plea for Soviet restraint on such critical issues as the Congo until it formulates its policy met with an unofficial nod in Moscow. Soviet sources said patience there would depend on the extent to which Washington avoided provocative criticism of Moscow and overt acts in sensitive areas of the wolf. (1:8) The Soviet Union has rejected the first overtures by the Kennedy Administration for cooperation in developing the peaceful uses of outer space. Moscow declined to participate in the development of plans for international use of weather satellites. (3:5-6) Washington signed a treaty with the West Indies Federation under which the federation will reoccupy about 80 per cent of the land granted to the United States in a destroyers-for-bases deal with Britain in World War II. (1:3) The President joined his brother, Attorney General Kennedy in urging Congress to take prompt action on an omnibus bill for fifty-nine new Federal judgeships ’ nine on the Court of Appeals, and fifty in the District courts ’ to ease the case load. (1:4) Mr. Kennedy’s Labor Secretary, Arthur Goldberg, said during his tour of depressed areas that "we are in a full-fledged recession" and urged bipartisan support for the President’s recovery programs. (1:2-3) Adenauer highly please with Kennedy message. (Page 3) Defense chiefs put stress on non-atomic arms. (Page 8)

February 12, 1961

President Kennedy met for two hours with a group of top advisers in what one of the participants described as a wife-ranging review of the whole subject of Soviet-American relations. They heard a first-hand report on recent developments in Moscow from Ambassador Thompson, but it was said that no decisions were taken and no new policy lines laid down. (1:5) In Paris, the first phase of a new attempt to start Algerian peace talks ended in a "Cautious optimism." A Tunisian representative completed four days of exhaustive talks with French officials and political leaders, designed as a preliminary to a meeting between President de Gaulle and the Tunisian President, Habib Bourguiba. (1:6) The President saw his most controversial appointee so far ’ Robert C. Weaver ’ sworn in as Federal housing chief. The President hailed the New Yorker, who said he felt "Extremely humble" in taking the post. (1:4) Vice Admiral Rickover was assured of being kept on active duty beyond the normal retirement age. Navy Secretary Connally said the "father" of the atomic submarine would remain in the "best interest of the Navy and the nation." (1:4-5) Kennedy seen discriminating against Catholics. (Page 34) J. T. McCarthy, ex-Connecticut Democratic head died. (Page 87)

February 13, 1961

A rocket bearing a pendant with the Soviet coat of arms hurtled towards Venus yesterday after having been launched from a heavy earth satellite orbited earlier in the day. Radio and other equipment aboard was said to be functioning normally, with the rocket expected in the area of Venus in the latter half of May. What it would do when it got there was not explained. (1:2-4) At the United Nations, the Security Council prepared to resume its Congo debate this morning, though with a reluctance to discuss Mr. Lumumba's fate without any official news of the deposed Premier’s whereabouts. (11:2) The Kennedy Administration also was ready to review the Post Office policy of intercepting alleged "Communist" or "subversive" mail from abroad. It will consider its wisdom as well as its legality. (1:4) Kennedy and Nixon to share radio-TV award. (Page 45) Kennedy team to wage fight on inflation. (Page 35)

February 14, 1961

The death of the deposed Congolese Premier, Patrice Lumumba, was announced. President Kennedy, told of the "massacre," expressed "great shock." His African specialists were unhappy that their efforts to pave a new, constructive approach to the Congo problem might be swept away in violence and passion. (1:7) In Albania, the United States was accused of plotting against that Government. In a speech, Albania’s party leader, Enver Hoxha, charged the Wets, under President Kennedy’s leadership, with "preparing for the third World War." (1:8) President Kennedy, with Vice President Johnson and three Cabinet Officers, went before the national Industrial Conference Board, seeking a "full-fledged alliance" between the Administration and the business community. He told the economic research group: "Your success and ours are intertwined." The President stressed three areas: economic growth, plant modernization and price stability. (1:1) In space, the Soviet interplanetary station sped toward Venus along its assigned course, while on earth, its masters discussed a future probe of Mars. Soviet scientists expect a wealth of new data about little known Venus if their latest device and the densely shrouded planet cross paths in May. (1:5) In Europe on both sides of the Iron Curtain, scientists and newspapers hailed the rocket as the greatest Soviet space achievement since the first sputnik was put in orbit in 1957. The latest feat was seen by some British observers as a grave warning. (10:3) This country’s radio tracking stations were apparently unsuccessful in detecting signals from the projectile. (9:2) An increase in the cotton support price ’ with attendant broad economic implications ’ is expected from Secretary of Agriculture Freeman. A support level of about 81per cent of parity is expected. (1:2-3) On another important economic front, Secretary of the Interior Udall has indicated an Administration policy of increased public power, in a memorandum he called for a return to a five-point power development program first announced by the Truman Administration in 1946. His pro-public power tone was considered significant. (1:2-3) Politics shared and denied in Goldberg tour. (Page 26) Udall changes policy on residual oil imports. (Page 51)

February 15, 1961

The Soviet Union withdrew its recognition of Dag Hammarskjöld as Secretary General of the United Nations, branding him "an accomplice and organizer of the murder" of Patrice Lumumba. In a searing formal statement on the death of the deposed Congo Premier, Moscow demanded the withdrawal of U.N. troops from the country within a month and indicated a readiness to intervene in the troubled republic by promising "every possible help and support" to Mr. Lumumba's deputy, Antoine Gizenga. At the sane time, Soviet and Afro-Asian university students, shouting, "Murderers!" and "Dag, out!", stoned and defaced the Belgian Embassy in Moscow. (1, Column 8; Text, 14) At the United Nations, Mr. Hammarskjöld withheld comment on Moscow's statement, but the United States quickly came to his support. The Secretary General was expected to make a reply when the Security Council resumes its debate on that Congo situation today. (1:7) The vehement assault against the Secretary General caused apprehension in the State Department. It cast doubt on hopes that the Kremlin would exercise restraint while the new United States Government weighed its own-foreign policies. (1:5-6) The West German Government indicated it was beginning to move toward some of the views advanced by the United States in the lengthy discussions on Washington's balance-of-payments deficit. (1:5) The Kennedy Administration put more pressure on a relaxed Congress to act on the President’s anti-recession program. Unemployment and the general sag in the economy were dramatized at a White House conference among the President, Cabinet members and Congressional leaders. After the meeting, House Speaker Sam Rayburn termed the present economic situation the most urgent since the depression of the Nineteen Thirties. (1:1) The Interior Department ordered an immediate eighteen-month moratorium on applications for the purchase of public lands. Interior Secretary Stewart Udall said the decision was designed to halt the sale of useless land to unsuspecting buyers by "unethical land locators and promoters." (1:2) Mayor Wagner met directly a veiled threat by Carmine G. De Sapio that a primary fight was in prospect as a result of the open break within the Democratic Party. Mr. Wagner declared that if he ran for a third term he would "not seek or accept the support" of the Tammany Hall leader. (1:3) Dillon call new economic pact vital to U.S. (3) Steel "Unisphere" to be symbol of 1964 Fair. (37) Kennedy congratulates Khrushchev on shot. (1)

February 16, 1961

President Kennedy pledged that the United States would defend the Charter of the United Nations by opposing any attempt by any government to intervene in the Congo. He said that massive unilateral intervention by any country would bring "risks of war." (1) Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld bluntly told the Soviet Union at a stormy United Nations session on the Congo that he would not be driven out of his post. He said the substitution of a three-man committee for the Secretary General would destroy the United Nations at its most critical moment. (1:6-7; Texts, Pages 12, 13) The Hammarskjöld statement came after debate had been halted for a time by a riot in the gallery--an outbreak called the worst in U.N. history. Adlai Stevenson had just begun his first major address when some sixty persons, mostly Negroes, clashed with guards. Many were hurt. Disorders continued in midtown streets. (1:5) The President also told his news conference that anyone who considered all the available evidence would agree that action was "necessary" to combat the recession. This was a reply to a Republican charge that he had overstated the nation's economic problems for political reasons. (1:3) Spurred by President Kennedy's call for a speed-up in the missile program, the leaders of 3,000,000 union construction workers ordered their members to shun hasty strikes at missile bases. The leaders, meeting in Florida, directed all locals to exhaust all available peace machinery. (6:2-3) At the same meeting, George Meany, A.F.L.-C.I.O. president, called for higher wages as the key to economic growth. (1:2) Kennedy pledges support of a broader NATO. (2) President pledges aid to Salvador. (4) Udall rules out "make work" Federal projects. (8)

February 17, 1961

From Leopoldville came word that the Conciliation Commission had recommended to Mr. Hammarskjöld that the United Nations recognize the legality of Premier Ileo's regime, which is opposed by Moscow. (2:1) The Kennedy Administration's long-awaited policy statements on the Congo elicited favorable comments among Latin and other Western states at the U.N., but were criticized by the more Leftist African countries. (4:1) The Kennedy Administration took new moves to combat the recession: the Pentagon ordered a speed-up in the award of military procurement and construction contracts, and the Interior Department ordered its engineering center in Denver on a six-day, fifty-eight hour week to speed plans for construction of reclamation projects. (1:1) In a move to bolster farm income and to control a developing surplus of corn and feed grains, the President sent Congress an "emergency" measure that would require farmers to reduce feed-grain acreage in order to remain eligible for price supports, which would be increased. (1:2-3) Mr. Kennedy also took action to promote sound wage and price policies, by establishing a twenty-one member Presidential labor-management advisory committee. Among the matters it was charged with are the problems connected with automation and the steps necessary to insure that American products are competitive in world markets. (1:2) The Administration took its first legal action over segregation, as the Justice Department sued to free $350,000 in Federal aid that Louisiana has withhold from New Orleans schools. (1:2-3)

February 18, 1961

President Kennedy sat down with Foreign Minister von Brentano yesterday and got up an hour later "satisfied" over a shift in West German financial aims, Bonn offered to make available about a billion dollars a year for aid to less-developed nations and came around to the American view that the balance-of-payments problem required more than temporary relief. (1, Column 8; Text, Page 2) In Washington, an investigation was under way into Burmese complaints that American military equipment was going to Chinese Nationalist "irregulars" in northern Burma. The Burmese say the arms have been supplied in part from Taiwan. (1:7-8) The Congo crisis continued. Prospects for House action soon on the first of the Kennedy economic measures opened up with a report that the Ways and Means Committee had reached a compromise that would make an emergency unemployment compensation bill more acceptable to business. The bill would provide up to thirteen weeks of additional benefits. (1:4) In advance of the President’s education message to Congress Monday, it was reported that he would not recommend Federal grants for constructing college classrooms. His decision, greeted by educators with gloom, was traced to a campaign promise not to use Federal funds for support of parochial and private schools. (8:6-7) On the launching pad, the United States took a nearly four to-one lead over the Soviet Union in number of earth satellites. The Air Force orbited a 2,450-pound Discoverer--the largest and heaviest Discoverer yet--and planned a capsule recovery attempt Tuesday. (1:2) And the space agency found that lost polka-dot balloon satellite fired Thursday-- orbiting almost exactly where it should have been. (1:1) Kennedy expected to fill record bench posts. (20) U.S. Court upsets Negro vote barrier in Alabama. (17)

February 19, 1961

President Kennedy continued his general review of Soviet-American relations, meeting for two hours with a group of his specialists. Among them was Ambassador Thompson who, when he returns to Moscow Wednesday, is expected to take with him a message explaining Mr. Kennedy's attitude on outstanding world problem. (1:4) In Havana, Premier Castro was said to have sent militia and troop reinforcements to the eastern tip of Oriente Province, lending support to reports that an expedition of rebels had landed during the week. Other reports said a shipment of arms had been received by rebels in the mountains. (1:5) The Federal Home Loan Bank announced that as part of the Kennedy anti-recession drive it would start tomorrow to add more than a billion dollars to the nation's available home-building credit. This came as the Commerce Department reported a 12 per cent rise in housing starts in January. (1:2-3) A special study of the Budget Bureau concluded that spending on national security could be reduced by more than half in the next ten years--a cutback that could amount to $23,000,000,000--if an acceptable disarmament agreement were achieved. (28:1) Kennedy feed-grain bill liked by farmers. (54)

February 20, 1961

Secretary General Hammarskjöld was told by his personal United Nations representative in the Congo yesterday of the possible murder of seven more Congolese political prisoners recently transferred from Leopoldville to South Kasai Province. The report, to be submitted to the Security Council this morning, could have an adverse effect on a Conciliation Commission recommendation for recognition of the Ilea regime as the base for a broadened Congo Government. (1, Column 8) Meanwhile, five United States naval ships were operating in the vicinity of the Gulf of Guinea--ostensibly for goodwill visits but also for possible emergency duty in the Congo crisis. (2:3) Tunisia's special envoy--he calls himself a "friendly buffer"--arrived in Paris to begin a week that promises to prove crucial in the search for a solution of the six-year Algerian problem. It appeared likely that before the week was out official representatives of President de Gaulle and the Algerian Provisional Government would hold a secret conference. (1:7) King Savang Vathana proclaimed that Laos was neutral and asked three neutral neighbors--Cambodia, Burma and Malaya--to send in investigators to confirm it. He said they would have as their mission "the denouncing of all foreign intervention, direct, indirect, open or camouflaged. (1:6-7; Text 12) The official spokesman for 13,500,000 unionists warned that President Kennedy's anti-recession program fell short of the nation's need for economic revival. (1:4) Domestic and overseas airline service on six major carriers continued at a trickle as Labor Secretary Goldberg failed to end the wildcat walkout of flight engineers. Patronage an aid and a headache for Kennedy. (1) Kennedy abolishes a top policy board. (14) Federal Reserve and Kennedy at peace. (35)

February 21, 1961

The Security Council approved early today the use of force by the United Nations command in the Congo to prevent the outbreak of civil war there. The Council acted by adopting a resolution submitted by Ceylon, Liberia and the United Arab Republic. Earlier, the Council, in effect, upheld Secretary General Hammarskjöld by rejecting a Soviet resolution that would have called for his removal and the withdrawal of United Nations troops from the Congo. The actions came after Mr. Hammarskjöld had told the Council yesterday that six more Congolese political prisoners had been executed. (1, Column 8; Text, 3) Secretary of State Rusk sought the support of the Soviet Union for the declaration of neutrality made by King Savang Vathana of Laos. (1:4) In another move, the Administration will ask the North Atlantic allies to formulate a plan for sharing the burdens of the common defense and aid to under-developed nations more equitably. The action was disclosed in a note given to the West German diplomats last week. (17:1) President Kennedy's first foreign trip in his role as President has been agreed on. It will be a state visit to Ottawa early In June. The trip was set during a three-hour conference and luncheon between the President and John Diefenbaker, Canada's Prime Minister. (1:2-3-4) A massive multi-billion-dollar program of Federal aid to education was proposed by President Kennedy in a message to Congress. The aid, which would benefit schools from the elementary level through college, would range over a five-year period. Included in the plan are grants to states for public elementary and secondary schools; college scholarships and aid to college construction. (1:1; Test, Page 22) A proposed bill to increase Social Security benefits was sent to Congress. The measure would add a billion dollars in benefits to low income groups, Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare Ribicoff, who drafted it, defended the soundness of the necessary tax raise of one-quarter of 1 per cent. (1:2) A Negro career Foreign Service officer, Clifton R. Wharton, has been appointed by President Kennedy as Ambassador to Norway. The 61-year-old Baltimore native has been a diplomat for thirty-two years. (1:3) More then 70,000 workers were laid off by six major airlines, crippled by a wildcat strike of flight engineers. There was no indication of a quick settlement, and two of the struck carriers announced a complete shutdown of service, two said they would maintain "taken" service, and two said they would continue limited operations. (1:5)

February 22, 1961

Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld called on the members of the United Nations to strengthen its emergency army in the Congo. Mr. Hammarskjöld made the appeal early yesterday morning after the Security Council, in a debate lasting into the morning, had authorized the use of force, as a last resort, to prevent civil war in the new African republic. (1, Column 8) The Council’s resolution was denounced by President Tshombe of Katanga Province. He called it "a veritable declaration of was on Katanga and on the whole of the former Belgian Congo," and he ordered a general mobilization in his secessionist state. (1:7) Reports reaching Leopoldville said that the execution of political prisoners had touched off tribal fighting on a large scale in Kasai Province. Women and children were among the dead, and villages were burned. (3:1) In Rangoon, the gunfire of Burmese troops broke up the largest anti-American demonstration ever seen in neutralist Burma. At least forty-three persons were injured when a mob of 10,000 persons protested the reported supplying of U.S.-marked weapons to Chinese Nationalist guerrillas in the Burmese jungle. (1:8) Diplomats in Washington said that a peace settlement in Laos along lines advanced by her king could result in the withdrawal of all Western military advisers and forces from the kingdom. (5:1) Despite official secrecy, informed quarters in Tunis reported that an immediate and direct contact between the French and the Algerian Nationalist Provisional Government had been agreed to by both sides. (2:2) In a speech to a group of ambassadors in Paris, President de Gaulle invited Central and South America to form a "united and renovated Latin world" with France and other Latin countries. (1:7) The United States’ man-in-space capsule survived its most severe test, a 12,850-mile-an-hour rocket ride. Officials at Cane Canaveral, Fla., said that a man apparently could have lived through the test, and three candidates were named for a space flight expected within two or three months. (1:3-4) Congressional leaders promised President Kennedy "full steam ahead" on sixteen legislative measures placed on a priority action list by the White House. (1:5) The President also intervened to block a $200,000 renovation and expansion of a United States officers club in France. The action, which prevented the outflow of dollars from the United States economy. (1:4-5) President Kennedy named a three-man advisory commission to try to end the paralyzing wildcat strike of flight engineers against six major airlines. (1:6)

February 23, 1961

As Premier Ileo warned yesterday that his Congo Government would use force to prevent implementation of the United Nations resolution. (1, Column 2) The Rhodesian political crisis worsened in the wake of Prime Minister Welensky’s rejection of British constitutional proposals. Five ministers of the federation’s government resigned and tension mounted among the African. (1:3) President Quadros of Brazil came out against Washington’s position and in favor of the U.N. debate on admission of Communist China. In making Brazil the first Latin-American state besides Cuba to do so, he did not indicate whether he favored actual U.N. membership. (1:1). Ambassador Thompson left Washington to return to Moscow, carrying with him a personal message from President Kennedy to Premier Khrushchev, expressing hope for an improvement in relations. (1:5) Because of the controversy stirred in Bern, Earl E. T. Smith turned down the President’s offer to being Ambassador to Switzerland. The controversy centered on the Palm Beach financier’s former post in Cuba. (1:6) The President also had his own personal international controversy, being implicated in an attempt to lure away the chef of France’s Ambassador to London. (1:3-6) The wildcat walkout of flight engineers continued to tie up six of the nation’s major airlines despite renewed efforts by Labor Secretary Goldberg. Last night, the grounded carriers issued a go-back-to-work-or-else ultimatum to the 3,500 strikers, saying their assurances against reprisals would "lapse" if the men did not report for work by today. (1:7)

February 24, 1961

West German officials reported yesterday a hardening of Moscow’s position on Berlin, as disclosed in a Soviet memorandum to Chancellor Adenauer. In it, Moscow, told Bonn any "temporary" solution of the Berlin problem must provide for the eventual transformation of the Western sector into a demilitarized free city. (1, Column 4) Another Soviet letter complained that the United Nations Secretariat was withholding information on steps being taken to implement the Security Council's latest resolution, which calls for the use of force, if necessary, to prevent civil war in-the Congo. Moscow particularly wanted to know what was being done to evacuate Belgian personnel. (1:2) President Kennedy was said to be considering taking a personal hand to win the backing of Cambodia for the Laotian Kings plan for a neutralist peace commission, This came after Cambodia, which was asked to be a member, questioned its value. (1:2-3) In a message to Congress, the President outlined a broad natural resources program aimed at a population he said would reach 300,000,000 in forty years. His emphasis was on water problems--comprehensive river basin development, flood and stream pollution control and saline water conversion. (1:5; Text, Page 12) In a fiery segregationist speech on the House floor in Baton Rouge, a Louisiana legislator denounced the Kennedy Administration for an alleged sales campaign by telephone "to trap us into a truce for two years." He said there would be no comprise on the school issue and challenged the Federal Government to jail defiant state officials. (1:7) There was more on the White House’s domestic help, this time a disclosure that the staff was being asked to sign written pledges that they would not "commercialize" their relationships by discussing them or writing about them even after retirement. (1:6) The strike of the flight engineers ended at all but one of the affected carriers. Western remained out of operation. President Kennedy told a hastily summoned meeting of reporters that they strikers had agreed to return to work immediately under an Administration formula providing for a stuffy by a Presidential Commission. (1:8)

February 25, 1961

It became known in Washington yesterday that President Kennedy had taken a step that could lead to his Administration’s first concrete negotiations with the Soviet Union. He has asked for a renewal of talks on reciprocal commercial air service. Moscow’s acceptance was expected. The original negotiations, scheduled to start last July, were deferred following the U-2 and RB-47 incidents. (1, Column 8) The growing number of Soviet weapons and their availability to Communist China were cited by Army leaders in Congressional testimony as factors "we cannot wisely afford to ignore." (1:8) Washington dared Premier Castro to permit Cuban "freedom of choice" between representative democracy and his Communist-dominated regime, hinting that there would be no settlement of differences until he did. (1:5) President Kennedy was joined in his support of the Laotian King's peace plan by Prime Minister Menzies of Australia. After the two leaders also "deplored" efforts by the Soviet Union to "twist the tragic events in the Congo into an attack upon the United Nations itself." (1:4) At the U.N., the United States was looking into the possibility of new Security Council action to condemn political assassinations in the Congo. U.N. officials were understood to have discussed asking the World Court to investigate the killings. (1:7) The African tour of Assistant Secretary of State Williams came under fire in Britain’s Parliament. Two Conservatives submitted motions asking Prime Minster Macmillan to complain to President Kennedy about Mr. Williams’ "intervention" in British African affairs in urging Africa for Africans. (3:5) President Kennedy asking Congress to help ease the outflow of dollars by cutting from $500 to $100 the amount of duty-free goods American travelers can bring back from abroad. And he asked for a companion measure to exempt from taxes the interest received by foreign banks on United States Government securities they hold on a non-commercial basis. (1:1) The New Haven Railroad informed the Interstate Commerce Commission that in order to keep the line running it would need the $1,500,000 remainder of $5,000,000 loan guarantee it had requested earlier this month. The commission had issued a guarantee for the repayment of $3,500,000 (1:2)

February 26, 1961

Moscow made public yesterday a lengthy message to Prime Minister Nehru of India and other unnamed world leaders (excluding President Kennedy) in which Premier Khrushchev called for a commission of African states to restore peace in the Congo and end foreign intervention. While it would be composed of nations with troops in the United Nations Congo force, the panel would apparently function independent of the world organization. The Soviet Premier stipulated that the commission operate in "full contact" with what he called the legitimate government of Antoine Gizenga, a Lumumba deputy. (1, Column 8; Text, Page 2) President Kennedy’s first serious venture into personal diplomacy appeared to have failed as officials in Washington reported that he had been turned down in his appeal to Cambodia to cooperate in the Laotian King’s peace plan. (16:1) In another sensitive area, the President was said to have decided the time and diplomatic climate were not right for any White House initiative in setting the long-standing Arab-Israel dispute. His decision is said to stem from the United Arab Republic's conduct against the United Nations in the Congo Situation. (1:6) The President announcing that his roving Ambassador, W. Averell Harriman, would leave today on a tour of West European capitals to confer with heads of government and officials of NATO. (1:5) With the Eisenhower Administration’s settlement of the long-festering problem of German assets seized in the United States in World War II. As a result, Bonn has dropped the issue for now and it will not longer be a factor in German-American financial negotiations. (1:4) In a message to the Civil Rights Commission conference in Williamsburg, the President singled out the "quiet intelligence and true courage" of teachers and school officials in the New Orleans school desegregation fight. (1:1, Text, 43) Mr. Kennedy was reported to have decided to risk a Congressional furor by pressing for sharp reductions in the $250,000,000-a-year program of aid to school districts with special financial problems. He is said to want to cut the main part of the program in half now and make further reductions over a three-year period. (1:1) President Kennedy set import duties on foreign-made bicycles 50 per cent higher than those agreed upon in Geneva in 1947. (1:2)

February 27, 1961

King Mohammed V of Morocco died after an operation and left his people in a state of anguish and shock. He son, Crown prince Moulay Hassan, was proclaimed King Hassan II. (1:6-7) The recent arrest of an alleged Soviet spy ring in Britain was bolstering Congressional opposition to any movement toward closer nuclear weapons cooperation with the United States’ NATO allies. (1:5) Three judges were named in Israel to sit in the trial of Adolf Eichmann, the former Nazi accused of the wartime murder of millions of Jews. (1:8) Senator Karl E. Mundt, Republican of South Dakota, quoted former President Eisenhower as saying that President Kennedy was going too far to the left, was too partisan and too inclined toward causes favored by "union bossism." (1:2-3) Mr. Kennedy received praise from Robert Frost, the poet, who had spoken at the President's inauguration. Mr. Frost saw Mr. Kennedy's New Frontier as "an Augustan age of poetry and power, with the emphasis on the power." The President praised the "courage and the towering skill and daring" of the Elder Poet. (14:4) It was learned that Mayor Wagner is being urged to make an early announcement of his intention to seek re-election to help speed the ouster of Carmine G. De Sapio as New York County Democratic leader. (1:2-3)

February 28, 1961

The United Nations Command was scored again by President Tshombe of Katanga Province. He announced that he was immediately resuming "full liberty of action" in view of the U.N.’s failure to halt the trans-Congo drive by the troops of his rival, Antoine Gizenga. (3:1) In New Delhi, Prime Minister Nehru reaffirmed India's support for continuation of the U.N.'s operations In the Congo. He also expressed opposition to the Soviet desire to reorganize the U.N. now. (1:7) Britain made the first major move in two years toward settlement of the problem created by Europe’s division into two trading blocs. The London Government expressed willingness to accept a common external tariff on non-farm goods. (1:5) Progress on Capitol Hill was the extraordinary speed of the Senate Judiciary Committee in voting to create sixty-nine new Federal judgeships, ten more than President Kennedy had requested. (1:1) The White House sent detailed legislation to Congress to carry out a portion of the President’s education program--a $2,300,000,000, three-year aid program for primary and secondary schools. (23:3) The Administration also informed Congress that it was adopting, at least for the time being, the $965,000,000 budget drafted by the Eisenhower Administration for the space agency. (4:34) President pledges aid to Salvador. (4) Udall rules out "make work" Federal projects. (8)