1-7 | 8-14 | 15-21 | 22-31

October 1, 1961

The United States probably will recognize the reconstituted nation of Syria soon after her new Government requests it. Diplomatic sources said Washington was apparently satisfied that the danger of violence had passed and that the revolutionary command had control over the country. (1:7)

Secretary of State Rusk and Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko held their third talk in New York on the Berlin issue. A United States spokesman said that the conversation, which lasted for four and half hours, had been "useful." He said that the two ministers were expected to meet in Washington this week and that they would probably confer with President Kennedy before Mr. Gromyko leaves for Moscow about Oct. 9. (1:4)

In Peiping, Premier Chou En-Lai expressed the desire of the people of China to "live together" with the American people. At the same time, he assailed the United States for "its policy of hostility to China." (1:5)

President Kennedy, at Newport, spent the morning at his desk, signing appropriations bills totaling more than $9,000,000,000.The bills, for foreign aid, the Peace Corps, public works and other programs, were among nearly 100 bills the President has before him at the vacation White House. (1:2)

In the Senate's final hours last week, it rescued just one piece of Mr. Kennedy's tax program. This established a numbering system for the 60,000,000 persons who pay Federal income taxes to better check their returns. (49:4)

The 41,000-mile Interstate Highway System, the key network in the nation’s greatest road-building program, is more than 25 percent completed. After five years of fiscal uncertainty, the program is now virtually on a pay-as-you-build basis, and Government officials express general conviction that the web of freeways will be completed on target in 1972. (82:1-2)

U.S and Soviet settle dispute over exhibits. (pg. 84)

October 2, 1961

On the diplomatic level, Britain’s Foreign Secretary said that in the East-West talks in New York the West had succeeded in making the Russians realize that they had been on a "collision course" over Berlin and that if they continued, it could lead to war. It became known that President Kennedy had been sufficiently encouraged by the three Rusk-Gromyko talks to wish to meet with Mr. Gromyko this week. (1:8)

Sources also disclosed that the United States believes that the Berlin crisis ultimately will be submitted to the United Nations or to a summit conference before the Soviet Union takes any decisive action to curb Western rights in the city. (1:7)

Political repercussions from Syria's secession from the United Arab Republic widened with an announcement that President Nasser was severing diplomatic relations with Jordan and Turkey, the first countries to recognize the new regime in Damascus. (1:5)

In the Far East, the President of South Vietnam declared that his country’s struggle against Communist insurgents had grown from Guerrilla action to "real war." (1:1)

The United States faced demands for revisions in its treaties with Spain and Panama, Generalissimo France said that "circumstances advise the revision" of Madrid's pace with Washington. (1:4-6)

The President of Panama revived demands for improved terms and fully "sovereign" rights in the Panama Canal Zone. (1:7)

President Kennedy deferred action on a Tariff Commission recommendation for increase in a duty on carpets. (24:6)

President to back 1964 World's Fair. (pg. 33)

October 3, 1961

At the United Nations, the United States rejected a revised Soviet proposal for reorganization of the Secretariat. Under the plan, which Moscow called "conciliatory," an Acting Secretary General and three deputies would conduct United Nations affairs "in spirit of concert." The Russians said the deputies would not have veto power. But United States said the system would still divide the world into three blocks. (1:5)

The Communist wall around Berlin took on the appearance of fortifications in several places as East German border guards and civilian labor squads improved trenches and built bunkers behind the barbed-wire barriers. (1:2)

Secretary of Labor Goldberg indicated that he would oppose the call by Michael J. Quill, President of the Transport Workers Union, for readmission of James R. Hoffa's Teamsters to the A.F.L.-C.I.O. "Mr. Hoffa's leadership is not good leadership for the labor movement," said Mr. Goldberg. (35:2)

Secretary of Commerce Hodges, expressed concern over mounting critics that he was "anti-business." He said he could not pinpoint the source, but thought the attacks were coming largely from Republicans. The Secretary said he was stepping up his speech-making to talk personally to business men. (25:5)

October 4, 1961

Nuclear arms are the key to the Berlin crisis, according to many American diplomats and military men in Europe. They believe the United States must convince Moscow that it will use such weapons, if necessary, to defend its vital interests in Berlin.

The situation led the United States to change its mind about closing four air bases in Berlin. (4:3)

The United Automobile Workers began a nation-wide strike against the Ford Motor Company. Production that had been running at about 40,000 cars and 8,000 trucks came to a halt as 120,000 workers walked out. (1:8)

In support of the nation’s military buildup, the Pentagon ordered a draft of 495 physicians, 154 dentists and sixty-seven veterinarians. Some reserve nurses also will be called and more women soldiers will be recruited. (1:2-3)

President Kennedy reluctantly signed a two-year $900,000,000 bill on school aid that provided only a small part of what he had sought. (1:7)

A policy against racial discrimination in mortgage lending by Federal savings and loan associations has quietly been adopted by the Federal Home Loan Bank Board. It affects the nation's largest source of home mortgage financing. (1:8)

U.S. to keep air bases in Britain. (pg. 4)

U.S. concern rise on Red threat in Vietnam. (pg. 19)

U.S. bars Soviet scientists from New York. (pg. 9)

Kennedy prods under-developed lands. (pg. 23)

President pays tribute to Adams family. (pg. 29)

October 5, 1961

President Kennedy will meet tomorrow with Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko to review the main issues in the dispute over Berlin and Germany. The President is said to be eager to convey to Premier Khrushchev a word of caution that nothing be done or said that would exacerbate the crises while the two sides move slowly toward negotiations. (1:18)

It became known that Communist China was again shopping for grain in the non non-Communist world to mitigate the effects of another poor harvest. (1:7)

Allied military experts were meeting in Bangkok, Thailand, on a common plan to defend Southeast Asia against Communist aggression. One diplomat closely connected with SEATO said that "it looks as if Southeast Asia is cracking at the seams." (1:5)

President Kennedy appointed a nine-man bipartisan commission to make recommendations about reducing the dependence of Presidential candidates on private contributors. "I have long thought," he said, "that we must either provide a Federal share in campaign costs, or reduce the costs of campaign services, or both." (28:3)

The President also established a commission to make plans for the design, site and construction of a permanent memorial to Woodrow Wilson. (24:3-4)

The President and Mrs. Kennedy introduced theatre in the royal tradition to the White House. Five Shakespearean extracts were performed on a specifically built stage in the lofty East Ballroom at a state dinner in honor of President Abboud of the Sudan. (1:3-6)

U.S. seeks to settle Afghan-Pakistan rift. (pg. 1)

Kennedy signs Mexican labor extension. (pg. 24)

Kennedy signs will allow dual ship rates. (pg. 72)

October 6, 1961

Reliable sources disclosed yesterday that the United States had sounded out West Germany on whether it would be willing to conduct negotiations with East Germany on Western rights of access to Berlin. The State Department is said to believe that if the East and West Germans reached a detailed agreement on the issue, it could then be guaranteed by the United States, Britain, France and the Soviet Union. (1:8)

In the second border-shooting incident in Berlin within eighteen hours, an East German Communist guard fired at and barely missed a West Berlin policeman. The State Department issued a statement blaming Communist authorities for the outbreak of shooting and warned that further incidents could jeopardize peace. (5:5)

The United States Agreed to the election of U Thant of Burma as acting Secretary General of the United Nations on two conditions. They are he must have four or five Assistant Secretaries General instead of the three demanded by Moscow and that he would be free to consult with them as he saw fit. (1:5)

Secretary of Defense McNamara forbade civilian and military defense officials to express politically partisan views at meetings sponsored by non-governmental groups. In a stiff memorandum the Secretary also forbade the use of military facilities or personnel for public information programs if responsible authorities felt that the participants would express views contrary to national policy. (1:2)

Hospital tests in Dallas, Tex., disclosed that Speaker of the House Sam Rayburn was suffering from incurable cancer. (1:3)

The Civil Rights Commission urged President Kennedy to issue a broad Executive order banning racial discrimination both in federally aided housing and by federally supervised mortgage lenders. (1:4)

Kennedy confers with President Abboud. (Page 2)

Kennedy sees hope of aid to World's Fair. (Page 37)

October 7, 1961

In a two-hour conference at the White House last evening, President Kennedy and Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko exchanged some blunt views on Germany and Laos but made virtually no progress on wither issue. Mr. Kennedy reportedly restated the West's position with great care, stressing his determination to defend the freedom of West Berlin and Western access to the city. Mr. Gromyko offered no encouragement that meaningful East-West negotiations on Berlin and Germany could be held in the near future. (1:8)

Earlier, the State Department denied a report that the United States had approached West Germany on whether it would be willing to negotiate with East Germany on Western access rights to Berlin. (1:7)

As the Atomic Energy Commission reported that the Soviet Union had exploded the eighteenth nuclear device in its current test series that began Sept. 1. (3:1)

President Kennedy set a civil defense goal of "fall-out protection for every American as rapidly as possible." He stressed the possibilities of "do-it-yourself" home shelters to back his group-shelter program. (1:5)

Military sources in Washington said they had been advised by Pentagon officials that military manpower might be cut back sharply if the Berlin crisis eased and no major crisis developed elsewhere. At the same time, there were forecasts that military spending next year would be "many billions" higher than the $47,000,000,000 estimate for the current fiscal year. (1:4)

Labor unions have been put on notice that President Kennedy's appeals for wage and price restraint were not made just for the record. It became known that Dr. James Tobin, a member of the President's Council of Economic Advisers, had told union economists that wage increases should stay within productivity gains. (1:2)

President Kennedy made interim appointments to seventeen Federal judgeships, six of them in New York. They include Thurgood Marshall and Irving Ben Cooper. (10:8)

McCloy retires as President's arms adviser. (Page 5)

U.S. costs Czech diplomat in reprisal. (Page 7)

Gerald F.B. Dooher of the U.S.I.A. (page 23)

"You’ve offered to trade us an apple for an orchard. We don’t do that in this country."- President Kennedy to Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko. (1:8)

October 8, 1961

The United States Army has reduced its patrols on the U.S. sector of the border facing East Berlin and transferred this function from regular troops to military police units. It also became known that the twelve-mile border section was now being patrolled only sporadically by the military police units. These disclosures were made by United States military authorities as three West Berlin newspapers demanded that the Western Allies take on more responsibility for guarding the border in the wake of a series of incidents in which East German policemen fired across the border barricades into West Berlin. (1:8)

As West Berlin’s Mayor, Willy Brandt, prepared to end a visit to New York, President Kennedy assured him by telephones that the United States was "deeply interested" in West Berlin and considered it "vital" to the non-Communist world. (3:1)

The President’s two-hour talk with Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko Friday night was reported to have gone pretty badly and in a direction that some sources in Washington interpreted as backward. (1:6-7)

Mr. Gromyko’s silence on the question a United Nation Secretary General surprised observers at the world organization. (2:3)

A census of Federal employees, conducted by an Executive committee, shows that the percentage of Negroes in government compares favorably with the Negro population ratio. The Negro employees, however, are concentrated in the lower third of the salary grades. (1:1)

Soviet gives swift recognition to Syria. (Page 26)

U.S. bars Cuban exile regime in Miami. (Page 1)

Kennedy studies proposals on housing bias. (Page 55)

U.S. Bearing major burden in building up NATO. (Page 4)

October 9, 1961

After three days of seemingly fruitless talks at a jungle conference site, Prince Souvanna Phouma dramatically announced yesterday that he had been chosen to become the Premier of a new provisional coalition Government for strife-torn Laos. The selection of Souvanna Phouma, a neutralist, was made possible by major concessions by two other princes who head the Laotian Right and Left. The Premier-designate is expected to be speedily granted a royal mandate to form a new Government. (1:8)

The Kennedy Administration hopes to continue talks with the Russians on Berlin and Germany at the ambassadorial level despite the lack of progress in exploratory talks over the last three weeks. Washington hopes that Britain, France and West Germany will agree to a plan to have Ambassador Llewellyn E. Thompson Jr. pursue discussions with Soviet officials in Moscow, starting newt week. (1:6-7)

The vacation White House at Newport announced that President Kennedy had scheduled a Western speaking tour for mid-November. His engagements will include Seattle and Phoenix. (19:1-2)

The President is facing growing pressure for an Administration program of civil rights legislation at the next session of Congress. (24:1)

October 10, 1961

In Washington, Secretary of State Rusk and top advisers met with the Ambassadors to Bonn and Moscow in the continuing United States effort to win acceptable Soviet terms for opening Berlin negotiations. (1:2-3)

The Kennedy Administration urged the Supreme Court to spur the reapportionment of seats in state legislatures, most of which deny urban areas the representation their populations would justify. (1:4)

President Kennedy returned to Washington after plane trip from Newport to Dallas where he found Speaker Sam Rayburn showing "courage enough for everybody" despite inoperable cancer. (1:8)

With one word-"No"- President Meany of the A.F.L.-C.I.O. rejected the notion that James R. Hoffa’s outcast Teamsters Union would be readmitted to the merged labor movement. (1:5)

October 11, 1961

Andrei Gromyko had a talk with Prime Minister Macmillan yesterday in London and was given a warning to take home to Premier Khrushchev. Mr. Macmillan was said to have told the Soviet Foreign Minister that any unilateral Russian action over Berlin, particularly against Western access rights, would entail "grave dangers." The Russian called the conference "useful," but Mr. Macmillan did not feel that "any firm basis" for negotiation had yet merged. (1:1)

As the statesmen conferred, Soviet bloc troop convoys were rumbling into East Germany for Warsaw Pact maneuvers near the West German border. West Berlin sources said 50,000 Soviet, 10,000 Polish and an unknown number of Czech troops had already arrived with more on the way. (1:2-3)

Marshal Chen Yi said Communist China was willing to hold foreign ministers’ talks with the United States, if the initiative came from Washington. (1:3)

The more familiar type of nuclear explosion reverberated underground in Nevada, where the United States set off its third detonation since it resumed atomic tests last month. (17:5)

The N.A.A.C.P. lodged complaints of anti-Negro bias in plants of two major defense contractors-Douglas Aircraft and Western Electric-both of which had signed White house pledges to give Negroes equal job chances. (29:3)

U.S. recognizes new regime in Syria. (Page 1)

Nicaragua fears invasion by Cuba. (Page 3)

Cuba tells U.N. that the U.S. still trains rebels. (Page 3)

October 12, 1961

President Kennedy, tanned and somewhat grim, told a news conference yesterday that a month of quiet talks with the Russians had given him no immediate hope of an early solution of the issues of Berlin and Germany. The President indicated that he drew encouragement only from Moscow’s desire to continue talking and he promised to keep the dialogue going. But on matters of substance, he said, "We are not in sight of land." (1:8)

Sources in Bonn reported that the United States had decided that a Western foreign ministers’ conference on Berlin and Germany at this time would be "premature." Instead, an ambassadorial steering committee will resume talks in Washington next week in an attempt to resolve Allied differences. (1:8)

President Kennedy opened his news conference with an expression of concern over the threat of South Vietnam’s independence endangered by Communist guerrilla attacks. He said that Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor would go to South Vietnam this week to study means of assisting that country. And the President appointed Gen. James A. Van Fleet to assist the Army in training specialists in guerrilla warfare. (1:4)

Pessimism at the United Nations over the choice of a temporary successor to Secretary General Hammarskjöld increased with the disclosure of an exchange of memorandums between Washington and Moscow that hardened the deadlock. (9:1-2)

The General Assembly, led by angry African delegates, voted to censure South Africa for a speech defending its racial policies. The vote was 67 to one--South Africa--with twenty abstentions. (1:5)

The Defense Department announced further reinforcements of United States forces in Europe, including an armored cavalry regiment and eleven squadrons of fighter planes. 10,000 men are involved. (1:6-7)

President Kennedy disclosed that the Administration, concerned over the intensive series of Soviet nuclear tests, was studying whether the United States should also resume testing in the atmosphere. (1:7)

At his news conference the President also developed the following points: He said he intended to submit a balanced budget to Congress next January, but he doubted the wisdom of tax increase next year to put the budget in balance. (21:1)

And he made a strong defense of his national security politics but avoided several chances to score Republican critics. (20:6-7)

President Kennedy urged a national effort to discover the causes, cure and means of prevention of mental retardation. He said that he would appoint within a few days a panel of outstanding physicians, scientists and educators to prescribe a program. (1:2-3)

The merged labor federation decided to take in local unions that break away from the teamsters union. (1:2)

Kennedy to stay out of Speaker contest. (Page 21)

October 13, 1961

West Germany’s Foreign Minister von Brentano indicated yesterday that his Government was prepared to talk with the East German regime under specific, limited conditions. And Bonn’s Defense Minister Strauss announced that the new West German Government now being formed would order the term of conscription lengthened from a year to eighteen months end increase the military budget next year by nearly $600,000,000. Both ministers spoke at a meeting of the Parliamentary group of the Christian Democratic Union. (1:8)

Troops of the United States garrison in Berlin will hold extensive three-day maneuvers in the Grunewald Forest next week. The Army said that the exercises would involve 3,000 men and forty tanks. (7:1-4)

At the United Nations, the United States challenged the Soviet Union to sign a treaty immediately to end all nuclear weapon tests. And the United States renewed President Kennedy’s warning that Washington might have to resort to atmospheric tests unless the Russians stopped theirs. (10:2)

U Thant, the Burmese diplomat who is the leading candidate for Acting Secretary General, has drawn up a list of five high-ranking United Nations officials whom he proposed to name as his principal assistants. They would consist of one each from the United States, the Soviet Union, Western Europe, Latin America and Africa. (1:5)

A United States Senatorial delegation, which had been apprehensive about Congolese political leadership, left Leopoldville deeply impressed by Premier Adoula. (1:3-6)

President Kennedy told an academic convocation at the University of North Carolina it was a "dangerous illusion" to believe that "we shall soon meet total victory or total defeat" in the global struggle with communism. Addressing more than 30,000 students and citizens of Chapel Hill, he said that Americans were destined "to live out most, if not all, of our lives in uncertainty and challenge and peril." (1:3)

The Public Health Service announced that fall-out from Soviet nuclear tests had increased the amount of radioactive iodine 131 in milk and fresh foods in certain area of the United States. But health officials said the fall-out "does not warrant undue public concern." (1:8)

A Federal grand jury in Los Angeles indicated the General Motors Corporation, four sales executives and three car dealers’ associations on charges of conspiring to eliminate competition by banning the sale of Chevrolet cars at discount houses. (1:2)

The merged labor federation censured A. Phillip Randolph, its only Negro vice president, for having created a rift "between organized labor and the Negro community." The executive council of the federation also disputed his charges of discrimination and racism by several federation affiliates. (1:1)

October 14, 1961

The Soviet Union announced yesterday that it would accept an Acting Secretary General of the United Nations with full power to make executive decisions. Western delegates generally remained skeptical, however, that Moscow was prepared to make any real compromise in the organizational crisis that has gripped the U.N. since the death of Dag Hammarskjöld in a plan e crash September 18. Moscow’s announcement was made at a ninety-minute news conference by Deputy Foreign Minister Zorin, who also asserted that the Secretariat was now being directed illegally. (1:8)

The United States disclosed that its bid to inform the Soviet people of Western views of the Berlin crisis had been rebuffed by the Soviet Union on the ground that only "constructive information could be circulated there. Moscow rejected a suggestion that it should reciprocate the right it enjoys in the United States to disseminate its propaganda. (1:6)

In the wake of public complaints over the training of four Yugoslav pilots at an Air Force base Texas, the United States disclosed that it had sold 130 jet fighter planes to Yugoslavia last March. Officials confirmed that the agreement, which included the training of pilots and maintenance men, had been reached despite President Tito’s severance of a military aid program in 1957 with charges that the United States was attaching political strings to it. (1:7)

The Civil Rights Commission urged Congress to pass legislation banning racial discrimination by the nation’s labor unions. The commission also asked President Kennedy to end segregation in the National Guard and to insure equal opportunity for Negroes on all projects subsidized by Federal grants to states and cities. (1:1)

President Kennedy accepted the resignation of Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant III as chairman of the Civil War Centennial Commission and appointed Allen Nevins, the historian, to the commission. (10:5)

Secretary of Labor Goldberg said his arbitration decision in the dispute between the Metropolitan Opera and its orchestra members would go beyond the specific issues and deal with "related problems of the future of the performing arts in our society." (25:1)

Dutch-Soviet rift brings ousting of envoys. (Page 1)

October 15, 1961

Recent Soviet moves in the Berlin crisis have strengthened a conviction in Washington that Premier Khrushchev is less interested in a peaceful settlement of differences than in inflicting a deep humiliation on the West. United States officials now generally assume that Mr. Khrushchev is seeking to break the economic and political links between West Germany and West Berlin and to divide West Germany from its allies and thus break the power of NATO. (1:8)

Chancellor Adenauer received a personal letter from President Kennedy outlining U.S. views on the German problem. The contents were not disclosed, but a Government spokesman in Bonn said Dr. Adenauer had called it a "good letter." (1:7)

At the United Nations, the United States rejected the Soviet idea that any candidate for Acting Secretary General must make a statement of policy before his election by the Security General. (8:1)

The United States announced that it had agreed to provide agricultural commodities values at $621,550,000 to Pakistan over the next four years. (1:5)

President Kennedy has asked General Taylor’s mission to South Vietnam to make a broad study of Southeast Asian affairs. The delegation, which is scheduled to leave for Saigon today, will gather material for a major reassessment of Washington’s position in that area. (1:4)

While all non-military aircraft remained strangely still on commercial runways in the United States and Canada, 1,800 fighter planes and crews at 250 missile sites took part in the largest air-defense maneuvers ever held in the West. The twelve-hour exercise involved mock interceptions of hundreds of "Attacking" bombers. (1:1)

President Kennedy, who was spending the weekend at his summer house on Cape Cod, announced that he had accepted the resignation of Jerome K. Kuykendall as a member of the Federal Power Commission. (50:3)

October 16, 1961

Leaders of the Communist world continued to arrive in Moscow for the opening tomorrow of the twenty-second Congress of the Soviet Communist party. Premier Chou En-lai of Communist China was the only leader to be welcomed personally by Premier Khrushchev. (1:8)

At the United Nations, the United States has run into difficulties in its attempt to postpone until next year a decision on Chinese representation. Reliable sources said the United States delegation had been unable to find a delegation willing to introduce a resolution calling for a study of the question of Communist China's admission. (1:7)

Former President Eisenhower gave President Kennedy a specific explanation of the controversial sale of 130 jet fighters to Yugoslavia, Administration sources disclosed. Mr. Eisenhower said it was better for the United States to provide such assistance than for Belgrade to turn to Moscow. (1:5-6)

United States and Canadian military leaders were highly pleased with the results of Sky Shield II, the largest air-defense maneuvers ever held in the Western World. President Kennedy received a preliminary report that described the twelve-hour operation as "the best exercise" ever held in continental air defense. (1:4)

Production and distribution of a weapon for land warfare- the new M-14 rifle- have been set on a satisfactory course after years of delays and deficiencies, according to officials in Washington. They said that many key units, including the Berlin garrison, now had the semi-automatic weapon that was adopted in 1957 to replace the M-1 rifle.

The Voice of America is increasing its broadcasting time and will soon move from third place to a tie for second place with Communist China in the number of broadcasting hours. The Soviet Union still leads with 1,050 hours a week. (1:2)

The United Automobile Workers ordered an end of strikes at all except two plants of the Ford Motor Company. (23:1)

October 17, 1961

Angry British Government officials expressed exasperation yesterday over France’s refusal to proceed with policy planning for possible negotiation on Berlin. Lord Home, the Foreign Secretary, emphasized London's irritation in an interview with the French Ambassador. The British were said to feel that the French had given a dramatic public advertisement of Western differences over Berlin. Government sources complained that Paris was contributing nothing to Allied policy but immobility. (1:8)

At the United Nations, a reliable source raised the possibility that the United States would accept the Russian demand for appointment of an Acting Secretary General with four top-level aides. (1:6-7)

The United Nations announced that it had only enough money to continue the Congo military operation for two more weeks. It is said the venture would collapse unless $20,000,000 was raised before the end of the month. (1:6)

President Kekkonen of Finland, whose country borders on the Soviet Union, began a two-day White House visit. He assured President Kennedy that Finland’s chief aim was to preserve her independence. (1:5-7)

Secretary of State Rusk said that the Administration planned to channel more foreign aid funds into education in underdeveloped countries. He said that the Government considered education such a worth-while economic investment that it was willing to support foreign educational projects with repayable loans. (1:4)

Attorney General Kennedy announced that three of the South’s largest railroads had agreed to desegregate their terminal waiting rooms. Mr. Kennedy said the lines deserved "great credit." (1:2-3)

The Air Force marked the end of a lag in completing ICBM sites by putting an Atlas missile base at Topeka into operation three weeks ahead of time. This brought to forty-eight the number of intercontinental ballistic missiles this country could use in case of a war. (1:1)

700 U.S. troops to figure in D-Day film. (Page 3)

U.S. to keep Peace Corps in Nigeria (page 6)

Kennedy names panel to study mental retardation. (Page 16)

U.S and Japan complete textile pact. (Page 53)

October 18, 1961

Meeting in vast Kremlin auditorium yesterday, thousands of Soviet delegates and foreign guests heard Nikita Khrushchev say he would withdraw his year-end deadline for a German peace treaty, if the West showed readiness to negotiate on Germany and Berlin. He insisted that he had not made any ultimatum in the Berlin dispute. The Premier also told the Soviet Communist party's twenty-second congress that Moscow would end its nuclear tests this month by exploding a bomb with the force of 50,000,000 tons of TNT. (1:8; page 16)

In East Germany, Communist officials were disappointed by the news that a peace treaty might be postponed. They confessed privately that the Soviet decision embarrassed them. (18:7)

Leaders of the Western world generally withheld immediate comment on the Khrushchev speech, but Washington felt that the Premier had moderated his tone on the German problem. Unofficially, the French were somewhat encouraged, too, although the West German Government was unimpressed. (18:3)

Reconsideration of the Soviet plan to test a fifty-megaton nuclear bomb was urged by the White House, which said the blast would serve "no legitimate purpose." (1:4)

"Uncomfortably large" were the words used by the Secretary of the Treasury Dillon in describing the current Federal deficit, which he said might exceed $6,750,000,000 this fiscal year. But he stressed the Administration's intention of submitting a balanced budget for the next fiscal year to Congress in January. (1:1)

U.S. envoy to aid in Afghan-Pakistan dispute. (Page 9)

Weaver sees end of Negro housing "ghetto." (Page 35).

October 19, 1961

Secretary of State Rusk rejected yesterday any type of military disengagement in Central Europe as a solution to the crisis over Berlin and Germany. Mr. Rusk said at a news conference that some kind of troop reduction in Europe and possibly in other parts of the world might well be taken up in the context of general disarmament. But he promised that the United States would not take part in any arrangement that discriminated against one country, presumably West Germany. (1:8; page 15)

In a second marathon speech in two days, Premier Khrushchev called for the unity of the Communist bloc in a final drive to defeat capitalism. He warned the delegates at the twenty-second congress of the Soviet Communist party of the dangers cited in the new party program for any nation that strayed from the bloc because of the false ideology. Premier Chou En-lai of Communist China declined to join in the general applause. (1:6-7)

Less than twenty-four hours after Mr. Khrushchev criticized Albania for its espousal of Stalinism, Peiping distributed a speech by a Chinese delegate to a conference in Tirana hailing Peiping's "unbreakable" friendship for Albania. (1:5)

Shortly before the first of a series of conference in Saigon between Gen. Maxwell Taylor and the President of South Vietnam, the President placed his country in a "state of emergency." And the Government announced that its chief liaison officer with the International Control Commission had been murdered by Communist guerrillas. (1:4-7)

The Atomic Energy Commission has begun a survey into how much time and money it would take to restore the Eniwetok Proving Grounds for nuclear tests in the atmosphere. He study follows a conditional decision by the Administration to resume atmospheric testing if no favorable action is taken on the test ban issue at the current session of the United Nations General Assembly. (1:7)

A high Administration source reported that the Pentagon had reaffirmed a decision to discontinue the production of B-52 strategic bombers next year and to limit investment in a plan to develop the B-70, a high altitude, supersonic bomber. (1:1)

The Federal Communications Commission ordered a Miami television company to go off the air Nov. 20, because of its backdoor tactics in obtaining Channel 10 there. (12:1)

Kennedy spurs a program on mental retardation. (Page 24)

October 20, 1961

The United States served notice yesterday that it would resume nuclear tests in the atmosphere unless a treaty prohibiting tests under effective controls was signed promptly. Adlai E. Stevenson also told the Political Committee of the United Nations General Assembly that the United States was ready to resume negotiations "tomorrow," in New York or Geneva, and would devote all its energies to speedy conclusion of an agreement. He said that if the Soviet Union would do the same and stop its tests, a treaty could be signed in thirty days "and this suicidal business ended before it ends us." (1:8)

Western diplomatic sources said that Nationalist China had been persuaded not to veto the application of Outer Mongolia for United Nations membership. As a result, the Security Council will meet next Wednesday to consider the applications of Outer Mongolia and Mauritania. (1:5)

The Kennedy Administration believes that Chancellor Adenauer will visit Washington for talks with the President soon after Mr. Adenauer has organized a new Government, probably early in November. (1:6-7)

Washington also is planning a warm welcome for Dr. Cheddi B. Jagan, the new Prime Minister of British Guiana, who says he is a Marxist but, Washington hopes, not a Communist. President Kennedy will receive him next week. (1:8)

Secretary of Commerce Hodges called for a cut in Federal income taxes. In a speech before the Illinois state Chamber of Commerce, he said that business men needed "ample assurance of good profits and greater profit-retention" if they were to modernize plants, support research and development and take risks at home and abroad. (1:2)

The national space agency fired a rocket more than 4,000 miles high in a study of the ionosphere. The test of the four-stage Scout rocket with its ninety-four pound payload was called a "good success." (10:8)

James E. Webb, administrator of the national space agency, said that decisions taken by the Kennedy Administration to speed up the nation’s space effort should accomplish in ten years what had been envisioned as the goals for fifteen years. (10:6)

October 21, 1961

Six countries in the direct path of Soviet radioactive fallout asked yesterday that the United Nations General Assembly "solemnly appeal" to Moscow to abandon its planned fifty-megaton nuclear test. The six--Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Canada, and Japan--submitted a joint resolution and urged that it be given "absolute priority" because of the expectation that the superbomb would be detonated before the end of the month. (1:8)

Communist leaders at the Soviet Communist party congress in Moscow expressed support for Premier Khrushchev’s attacks against Albania despite opposition by Premier Chou En-lai of Communist China. (1:3)

Nenad Popvic, a leading Yugoslav economic expert who helped to negotiate loans and credits to the Tito regime by Washington reportedly defected to the West. (1:7)

The leaders of West Germany's Christian Democratic Union and Free Democratic Party reached agreement on the terms and personnel of a new coalition Government under Chancellor Adenauer. Under the agreement, Dr. Adenauer will pledge to retire the summer of 1963. (1:5)

President Kennedy named Clarence B. Randall to head a special mission to take a "final hard look" at proposed United States aid to Ghana’s Volta River Project. (6:4)

The Kennedy Administration mounted what it called a counterattack against the "rising mood of national frustration" over the contest with the Soviet Union. It warned that there were only "two exits" from the current public attitude: belligerence or defeatism, and it called for confidence in Western progress and support for a flexible and "mature" foreign policy. (1:7)

In economic developments, the Administration reported that the nation's output of goods and services rose to a record yearly rate $526,000,000,000 in July, August and September. (8:6)

And Secretary of Labor Goldberg told an audience of 1,200 business men that if the Administration is to be "tagged" at all, it is pro-business. (8:5)

In attempt to reduce its annual deficit, the Post Office Department plans to raise parcel post rates by about 6 percent revise size and weight limits on parcels and increase mail catalogue rates by 13.8 percent. The plan, subject to approval by the I.C.C., would produce $95,000,000 a year. (1:5)

Taylor and Saigon chief set third meeting. (Page 4)

U.S. aid urges Salvador to speed reform. (Page 5)

Kennedy exercising daily to strengthen back. (Page 1)

October 22, 1961

The Germans, who developed the submarine into a major weapon of war, launched the first German-built U-boat since 1945, in a ceremony at Kiel. The new submarine is the first of a series of twelve for the West German navy. (1:4-5)

It became known that Col. Mariano Faget, a high secret police official in the Batista regime in Cuba, was now employed by the United States Government in screening refugees from Cuba at the Opa-Locka detention center near Miami. His presence has shocked many of the Cuban refugees. (1:6-7)

The Air Force launched a Midas IV early-warning satellite and millions of tiny copper wires into orbit 2,100 miles high. It was the beginning of the controversial Project West Ford, designed to test the efficiency of a metallic space belt to relay radio communications. (1:2-3)

An Administration spokesman said that the United States was so strong and its power so deployed that an aggressor who made a sneak nuclear attack would invite self-destruction. The speech by Deputy Secretary of Defense Roswell E. Gilpatric had been cleared at the highest level. (1:5)

Luncheon at the White House with French cuisine and three wines is the newest Presidential press relations technique. In recent weeks, Mr. Kennedy has played host to publishers and editors from Kentucky, New Jersey, Missouri and Washington, and the White House said that he intended to entertain similar groups from all fifty states. (52:3-4)

Confusion on Berlin hampers Thompson mission. (Page 4)

Kennedy assures Tubman on loan for Liberia (page 19)

U.S. aide finishes talks in Pakistan. (Page 20)

October 23, 1961

For the first time since the beginning of the Berlin crisis armed United States soldiers entered the Communist sector of Berlin last night. Nine military policemen, armed with rifles, walked into East Berlin twice to enforce the right of an American diplomat to enter the sector. The diplomat, who had been stopped by East German border guards, was eventually allowed to proceed. (1:8)

Secretary of State Rusk told a television audience that there was no reason for the West to shrink from contacts or negotiations with Moscow since the West was not dealing "from a position of weakness." (1:6-7)

A strong Budget Bureau was recommended in the final staff report of the Senate Subcommittee on National Policy Machinery. The chairman of the group, Senator Henry M. Jackson of Washington, called the budgetary process "the President’s most powerful instrument for establishing a system of national priorities and separating the necessary from the merely desirable." (1:2-3)

Two points about the relationship between the Administration and the business community emerged with sharp clarity this week-end after meetings of the Business Council: Both want a good, working relationship and they have made noteworthy progress toward achieving it. (1:4)

Progress also was reported in the Administration’s efforts to unify the military services. The next planned step will be a thorough overhaul of the Army’s technical services, which some officials predict will presage a reorganization of the entire Army Department. (1:4)

Scientists maintained a watch on a Midas IV satellite and the millions of tiny copper wires it is spewing out to form a metallic space belt to relay radio communications. It will take several days to determine the success of the project. (12:3-4)

President Kennedy announced the appointment of William S. Baud Jr. to be the regional administration for foreign aid to the Middle East and South Asia. (17:1)

Stevenson sees President in Newport on U.N. (3)

Administration to restudy satellite policy. (11)

October 24, 1961

Arctic skies blazed yesterday with the light of a huge atomic fireball as the Soviet Union touched off history’s largest man-made explosion. Unleashing a force equal to 30,000,000 tons of more of TNT, the blast was the twenty-second in the current Soviet series to be announced by the United States. It was followed two hours later by a relatively small underwater test. Despite the first bomb’s power, American officials doubted that it was the fifty-megaton device that Premier Khrushchev said the Russians would soon test. (1:8)

A tear-gas battle broke out between the East and West Berlin police shortly after Western policemen were supplied with gas grenades and sub-machineguns. (1:4)

President Kennedy declared that the United States was not bound to any rigid formulas on Berlin and would explore any reasonable approach to settlement. (1:3)

The Nobel Peace Prize for 1961 was awarded to the late Dag Hammarskjöld and the 1960 prize was given, belatedly, to Albert John Luthuli, a South African Zulu chief. (1:2-3)

On orders from the White House, the Government will no longer employ a former secret police official in the Batista regime to screen Cuban refugees. (1:6)

U.S. envoy ends mediation effort in Pakistan. (15)

October 25, 1961

President Kennedy received a letter yesterday from Chancellor Adenauer, in which the West German leader stood firmly by his own hard line on negotiations over Berlin. Dr. Adenauer repeated his frequent warnings against concessions that might weaken the Western stand-- a fear that American officials consider groundless. The message followed one from President de Gaulle, who remained adamant against Berlin talks now. (1:8)

In Berlin, an American spokesman said that American civilians had been advised to "go slow" about entering East Berlin until more was known about Communist orders governing such entries. (1:7)

The United States said it would keep its pledge to give Bonn’s armed forces nuclear capability. (3:1)

In a tough speech, an American United Nations delegate condemned South African race policies as "hateful," warned they could "rock" all Africa and said Washington was using all its influence to persuade South Africa to change its ways. (1:6-7)

A State Department official told Senate investigators that this country had no way of being sure that its exports to Yugoslavia, Poland and other Communist lands were not transshipped to the Soviet Union. He said the United States had oral assurances that its goods would not be re-exported. (6:3)

Declaring that he was yielding to pressure by the N.A.A.C.P., the Postmaster General reinstated with "great regret" a dismissed Negro letter carrier whom he regarded as unsuited for the job. The man had been dismissed from a Georgia post office on various major charges, but the real reason was his leadership of its Georgia unit. (23:4)

Carl Sandburg called at the White House to salute President Kennedy’s literary and political style. But Mr. Sandburg accused former President Eisenhower of "talking like a regular Army-trained man in statecraft" in attacking Mr. Kennedy’s Peace Corps as a "juvenile experiment." (This page, cols. 2-5)

Jagan, Kennedy discuss aid for Guiana. (1)

October 27, 1961

Thirty-three Soviet medium tanks, manned by Soviet troops, moved into the center of East Berlin last night. It was a display of military power calculated to counter the United States’ show of force to assert the right of free entry into the Communist sector of the city. The Soviet troops bivouacked about a mile from the Friedrichstrasse border-crossing point. (1:8)

East German interference with the right of American officials freely to enter East Berlin will be the subject of a formal United States protest to Moscow today. (1:7)

In another East-West dispute, President Kennedy has reassured the people of South Vietnam of his determination to help them resist Communist attacks and preserve their independence. (1:6)

Ankara’s Parliament elected Gen. Cemal Gursel the President of Turkey. (7:1-4)

Two days in advance of the Budget Bureau’s announcement of its annual review, President Kennedy directed the chiefs of Federal agencies to tighten up on spending. He told them that the outlook emphasized the need to conduct the work of the Government "at the lowest possible cost, to eliminate or defer low priority activities and to limit the number of Government employees to the absolute minimum." The Administration has already given notice that the deficit for the current fiscal year may exceed $6,750,000,000. (1:1; text, 21)

Williams advises wide U.S. role in Africa. (10)

Kennedy and Rockefeller hail new FM network. (66)

October 28, 1961

American and Soviet tanks confronted each other last night for the first time. With their guns pointing each other, they were less than 100 yards apart on the narrow Friedrichstrasse crossing point between West and East Berlin. (1:6-7)

East Berlin crowds watched sullenly in an eerie quiet made garish by neon lights. (2:6-8)

The Soviet tanks moved up to the border after the United States Army displayed military force for the third successive day to escort American officials in civilian clothes in and out of East Berlin. In Moscow, the United States demanded that the Soviet Government restore freedom of movement in the sector for American citizens. An oral protest was lodged by Ambassador Llewellyn Thompson Jr. Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko immediately countered with a protest against "provocative" actions by United States military policemen in crossing the East Berlin border. (1:8)

Washington interpreted the appearance of the Soviet tanks in East Berlin as a "belated admission" of Moscow’s responsibility for the affairs of the city and the behavior of East German authorities. (2:1)

Washington interpreted the appearance of the Soviet tanks in East Berlin as a "belated admission" of Moscow’s responsibility for the affairs of the city and the behavior of East German authorities. (2:1)

A solemn appeal to the Soviet Union to call off its planned fifty-megaton bomb test was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly. The vote was 87 to 11. (1:2)

As the United States announced the twenty-fifth Soviet nuclear test since Sept., Communist China broadcast an urgent warning against radioactive fall-out for its northern provinces. The Peiping broadcast advised the public to keep a "vigilant alert." (1:1)

The United States successfully fired "the world’s largest known" rocket on its first test flight. The performance of the eight-engine Saturn, which is as tall as a twenty-story building, was a big leap forward for the United States’ space program. The primary mission of the vehicle will be to lift three-man capsules on orbital missions around the earth prior to a moon flight. (1:2-4)

The Pentagon announced that production of B-52 strategic bombers would be ended next year as originally scheduled. It also announced that funds voted by Congress to enlarge the program for a new supersonic, high altitude B-70 bomber and to accelerate the Dyna-soar space glider project would not be spent in view of the "accelerated defense build-up." (1:5)

Irvin C. Searbeck, former second secretary in the United States Embassy in Warsaw, was convicted of having given classified Government material to Poland. (4:4-5)

President Kennedy will go to New Jersey next Thursday to aid the campaign of the Democratic Gubernatorial candidate, Richard J. Hughes. (1:3)

After an hour-long conference with Mr. Kennedy, Mayor Wagner said that he had won the President’s "enthusiastic support" in the city campaign. (1:4-6)

October 29, 1961

After confronting each other for sixteen hours through a chilly, drizzly night, Soviet and United States tanks pulled back yesterday from Berlin’s intracity border. They did not go far, but their withdrawal from the Friedrichstrasse crossing point helped to lower the tension caused by the hostile confrontation of the World War II allies. The Soviet tanks withdrew first, about a mile from the crossing point. The American tanks pulled back 600 yards. (1:8)

Sources in London disclosed that the Bonn Government had agreed to purchase United States military equipment, supplies and facilities in Europe for about $600,000,000. The payments are expected to ease Washington’s balance-of-payments problem. (1:6)

Mr. Khrushchev indicated his determination to go ahead with the testing of a fifty-megaton nuclear bomb despite appeals by "fair-minded people abroad" and "hysterical" clamor. (1:4)

The Kennedy Administration will send eight of its top officials to Japan this week in the first experiment at Cabinet-level cooperation between the United States and its most important ally in Asia. (30:1)

The United States delegation to the annual conference of the Food and Agriculture Organization, which will open in Rome tomorrow, will press for the creation of a $100,000,000 world food bank to fight famine and dietary deficiency in children. (1:6)

A State Department report to President Kennedy said that African students in United States colleges were in "urgent" need of at least $500,000 assistance. The report declared that the new budget was inadequate to meet the problem, but that even if the Government funds were available, the money should be raised by private foundations and corporations. (45:1)

Rusk rejects Soviet plan for "buffer" zones. (3)

October 30, 1961

Attention in troubled Berlin shifted yesterday from the intracity border to the autobahn link between West Berlin and West Germany. A Soviet army officer turned back two United States military police cars on patrol just outside the city. But a third patrol later was allowed through without difficulty. The United States Berlin commands quoted the Soviet officer as having objected to the American patrols as "unnecessary." (1:5)

The United States has challenged its Atlantic allies to match Washington’s response to the Berlin crisis and related developments requiring increased military spending. It became known that Deputy Secretary of Defense Gilpatric, in his tour of Europe, had emphasized Washington’s efforts and had elicited assurance of greater contributions to strengthen Western defenses. (3:1)

The official midyear review of the Federal budget estimated a $6,900,000,000 deficit for the current fiscal year, which ends next June 30. President Eisenhower, on different set of assumptions and proposals, estimated a $1,500,000,000 surplus when he presented the budget last January. (1:1)

The United States tested a "low-yield" nuclear device underground in the Nevada desert. The test followed earth shocks that had been recorded on seismographs around the world and had suggested another Soviet test in the atmosphere. But most authorities appeared in agreement that these shocks were from two earthquakes. (1:2)

Proposals for broadening the $306,000,000 Federal civil defense program are under study by the Administration. This became known as civil defense program are under study by the Administration. This became known as civil defense officials reported that they were still besieged by inquiries on how to survive a thermonuclear attack. (1:2-3)

President Kennedy told the people of two states of his determination to maintain the nation’s freedom while continuing its material progress. He addressed an airport crowd at Fort Smith, Ark., and spoke to 25,000 Oklahomans at a ceremony opening a national forest road. (1:5-6)

The President’s unexpected decision to make a campaign address for Richard J. Hughes, the Democratic gubernatorial candidate in New Jersey, has given a lift to the morale of the party leaders. (1:7)

October 31, 1961

The Russians touched off history’s greatest man-made explosion yesterday at their proving ground above the Artic Circle. In reporting the thermonuclear blast, Washington said it had a force up to fifty megatons. As big as it was, there were signs that the explosion might have fallen short of Soviet hopes and that it might have been as small as thirty-five megatons. The White House joined in world-wide indignation by denouncing the test as a political act designed to incite "cold war" panic. (1:8)

Dismay and outrage typified the non-Communist world’s reaction to the Soviet blast. Reflecting a wide-spread feeling, the Vatican radio called the test an "insane decision." (1:7)

Senator Jackson, head of a Congressional Atomic Weapons subcommittee said that this country would have to resume above-ground tests for its own security. (15:1)

And American and British sources indicated neither country would obey any United Nations call for an unsupervised test halt. (1:6)

The Soviet Union took a dramatic new step in shattering Stalin’s image when the body of the dictator was ordered removed from its place next to Lenin’s in their Red Square tomb. Delegates to the Communist party congress unanimously approved the transfer, thus symbolizing the defeat of the element that has opposed reforms since Stalin’s death. (1:2-3)

The Justice Department won an important legal victory in support of Negroes trying to register as voters in southern Mississippi. A Federal court blocked, at least temporarily, that state’s criminal prosecution of one of the voting drive leaders, after the Government had called the prosecution part of an intimidation scheme. (20:1)

A "landmark" labor agreement guaranteeing a worker his job or equivalent wages for life was negotiated by Southern Pacific Railroad and its telegraphers. Any employee whose job may be abolished in the future will continue at regular pay indefinitely, even though he is not working. (1:2)

Von Brentano resigns as Foreign Minister. (Page 1)

Four Cabinet members leave for a meeting in Japan. (Page 4)

Udall recommends cut in oil imports. (Page 39)