Constructing a Bibliography or List of Works Cited

Most style manuals require you to assemble a list of the works that you have cited in your paper. This list, included at the end of your paper, is called a "reference list" by the APA (American Psychological Association), is termed "Works Cited" in MLA (Modern Language Association) style, and is known as the "Bibliography" by Turabian. Offered here are some of the most commonly used forms of cited material. For guidelines on how to document other materials not represented here, please consult the appropriate style manual for the three organizations listed above.


Article from a printed journal

Brown, E. (1996). The lake of seduction: Silence, hysteria, and the space of feminist theatre. JTD: Journal of Theatre and Drama, 2, 175-200.

Article from magazines

Gawande, A. (2001, July 9). The man who wouldn't stop eating. The New Yorker, 77, 66-75.

Article from an online magazine

Saetan, W. (2001, August 16). The ethicist's new clothes. Slate. Retrieved August 17, 2001, from

Article from an online newspaper

Wright, S. (2001, January 25). Curriculum 2000 draws criticism. The Chronicle. Retrieved November 7, 2001, from


Books with a single author

Fleming, T. (1997). Liberty!: The American Revolution. New York: Viking.

Book with more than one author

Sennett, R., & Cobb, J. (1972). The hidden injuries of class. New York: Vintage Books.

Electronic book

Norman, R. (1998). The moral philosphers. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved August 14, 2001, from Duke University, Duke University Libraries, netLibrary Web site:

Article within a book

Cassel, J., & Zambella, B. (1996). Without a net: Supporting ourselves in a tremulous atmosphere. In T. W. Leonhardt (Ed.), "LOEX" of the West: Teaching and learning in a climate of constant change (pp. 75-92). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press Inc.

Encyclopedias and other multi-volume books

Lumiansky, R.M. (1998). Chaucer. In The new encyclopaedia Britannica ( Vol. 15, pp. 745-748). Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica.

Book reviews

Salinger, S. V. (2001). [Review of the book Not all wives: Women of colonial Philadelphia]. The Journal of American History, 88, 184-185.

Government Documents

Hate Crimes Prevention Act of 1998: Hearing before the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, 105th Cong., 2nd sess. 1 (1998).


Personal interview

Senator John McCain. Personal interview. 2 Feb. 2000.

Telephone interview

Senator John McCain. Telephone interview. 2 Feb. 2000.

Email interview

Senator John McCain. Email interview. 2 Feb. 2000.


Web: National Park Service. (2001, October 3). Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historic Site. Retrieved October 19, 2001, from