President Kennedy's Executive Order 11085 (February 22, 1963) re-established the Medal of Freedom as the Presidential Medal of Freedom.
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Recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, 6 December 1963
Thirty one individuals were awarded the medal on December 6, 1963 by President Lyndon Baines Johnson:
Miss Marian Anderson
Mr. Pablo Casals
Miss Genevieve Caulfield
Dr. John F. Enders
Mr. Karl Holton
Mr. Robert J. Kiphuth
Mr. Edwin H. Land
Governor Herbert H. Lehman (in absentia)
Mr. J. Clifford MacDonald (Mrs. MacDonald received the award on behalf of her deceased husband)
Mr. George Meany
Professor Alexander Meiklejohn
Mr. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
Mr. Clarence B. Randall
Mr. Rudolf Serkin
Mr. Edward Steichen
Professor George W. Taylor
Dr. Alan T. Waterman
Mr. Mark S. Watson
Mrs. Annie D. Wauneka
Mr. E.B. White
Mr. Edmund Wilson
Mr. Thornton Wilder
Mr. Andrew Wyeth
Those who received the award with Special Distinction:
Mr. Ellsworth Bunker
Dr. Ralph J. Bunche
Dr. James B. Conant
Governor Luis Muñoz Marín
Mr. Robert A. Lovett
Mr. Jean Monnet
Mr. Justice Felix Frankfurter
Mr. John J. McCloy
President Johnson conferred the Presidential Medal of Freedom posthumously on His Holiness, Pope John XXIII. He also awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom posthumously to President John Fitzgerald Kennedy.
Symbolism of the Design
For years the white star has been displayed throughout the world as the identifying emblem of United States elements in the defense of freedom. It is recognized universally as a symbol of our selfless determination to maintain the freedom and democracy of mankind.
The eagles among the points of the star are of a design of the early Federal period of the United States, and symbolize the supporting strengths and convictions of our own early struggle for freedom.
The constellation of thirteen stars in a field of blue is from the Glory crest of the Coat of Arms of the United States, representing high idealism.
The oak wreath depicts the accolade aspect of the decoration and also emphasizes the quality of strength.
The white stars on the blue background of the ribbon allude to the united states themselves. The multiple, white, five-pointed stars in the blue field of the canton of our flag long have held a conspicuous place as symbols of the states of our Union.
The colors of blue, white, gold and silver are associated with the President's seal and flag.
Source: Papers of John F. Kennedy. Presidential Papers. President's Office Files. Subjects. Medal of Honor, Medal of Freedom